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- Kollisionen schwerer Ionen (28)
- heavy ion collisions (22)
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- Intermediate mass dileptons from secondary Drell-Yan processes (1998)
- Recent reports on enhancements of intermediate and hight mass muon pairs producedin heavy ion collisions have attracted much attention.

- Viscosity and the equation of state in high energy heavy-ion reactions (1993)
- Viscous hydrodynamic calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions (Nb-Nb and Au-Au) from 200 to 800 MeV/nucleon are presented. The resulting baryon rapidity distributions, the in-plane transverse momentum transfer (bounce-off), and the azimuthal dependence of the midrapidity particles (off-plane squeeze out) compare well with Plastic Ball data. We find that the considered observables are sensitive both to the nuclear equation of state and to the nuclear shear viscosity η. Transverse momentum distributions indicate a high shear viscosity (η≊60 MeV/fm2 c) in the compression zone, in agreement with nuclear matter estimates. The bulk viscosity ζ influences only the entropy production during the expansion stage; collective observables like flow and dN/dY do not depend strongly on ζ. The recently observed off-plane (φ=90°) squeeze-out, which is found in the triple-differential rapidity distribution, exhibits the strongest sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state. It is demonstrated that for very central collisions, b=1 fm, the squeeze-out is visible even in the double-differential cross section. This is experimentally accessible by studying azimuthally symmetric events, as confirmed recently by data of the European 4π detector collaboration at Gesellchaft für Schwerionforschung Darmstadt.

- Properties of exotic matter for heavy ion searches (1997)
- We examine the properties of both forms of strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of strange hadronic matter (Metastable Exotic Multihypernuclear Objects: MEMOs) and their relevance for present and future heavy ion searches. The strong and weak decays are discussed separately to distinguish between long-lived and short-lived candidates where the former ones are detectable in present heavy ion experiments while the latter ones in future heavy ion experiments, respectively. We find some long-lived strangelet candidates which are highly negatively charged with a mass to charge ratio like a anti deuteron (M/Z 2) but masses of A=10 to 16. We predict also many short-lived candidates, both in quark and in hadronic form, which can be highly charged. Purely hyperonic nuclei like the (2 02 ) are bound and have a negative charge while carrying a positive baryon number. We demonstrate also that multiply charmed exotics (charmlets) might be bound and can be produced at future heavy ion colliders.

- Hadron production from a hadronizing quark-gluon plasma (1997)
- Measured hadron yields from relativistic nuclear collisions can be equally well understood in two physically distinct models, namely a static thermal hadronic source versus a time-dependent, non-equilibrium hadronization off a quark gluon plasma droplet. Due to the time-dependent particle evaporation off the hadronic surface in the latter approach the hadron ratios change (by factors of / 5) in time. The overall particle yields then reflect time averages over the actual thermodynamic properties of the system at a certain stage of evolution.

- pi-N correlations probe the nuclear equation of state in relativistic heavy ion-collisions (1995)
- We investigate the sensivity of pionic bounce-off and squeeze-out on the density and momentum dependence of the real part of the nucleon optical potential. For the in-plane pion bounce-off we find a strong sensivity on both the density and momentum dependence whereas the out-of-plane pion squeeze-out shows a strong sensivity only towards the momentum dependence but little sensivity towards the density dependence.

- Deep learning based impact parameter determination for the CBM experiment (2021)
- In this talk we presented a novel technique, based on Deep Learning, to determine the impact parameter of nuclear collisions at the CBM experiment. PointNet based Deep Learning models are trained on UrQMD followed by CBMRoot simulations of Au+Au collisions at 10 AGeV to reconstruct the impact parameter of collisions from raw experimental data such as hits of the particles in the detector planes, tracks reconstructed from the hits or their combinations. The PointNet models can perform fast, accurate, event-by-event impact parameter determination in heavy ion collision experiments. They are shown to outperform a simple model which maps the track multiplicity to the impact parameter. While conventional methods for centrality classification merely provide an expected impact parameter distribution for a given centrality class, the PointNet models predict the impact parameter from 2–14 fm on an event-by-event basis with a mean error of −0.33 to 0.22 fm.

- Relativistic Hartree approach including both positive- and negative-energy bound states (1999)
- We develop a relativistic model to describe the bound states of positive energy and negative energy in finite nuclei at the same time. Instead of searching for the negative-energy solution of the nucleon's Dirac equation, we solve the Dirac equations for the nucleon and the anti-nucleon simultaneously. The single-particle energies of negative-energy nucleons are obtained through changing the sign of the single-particle energies of positive-energy anti-nucleons. The contributions of the Dirac sea to the source terms of the meson fields are evaluated by means of the derivative expansion up to the leading derivative order for the one-meson loop and one-nucleon loop. After refitting the parameters of the model to the properties of spherical nuclei, the results of positive-energy sector are similar to that calculated within the commonly used relativistic mean field theory under the no-sea approximation. However, the bound levels of negative-energy nucleons vary drastically when the vacuum contributions are taken into account. It implies that the negative-energy spectra deserve a sensitive probe to the effective interactions in addition to the positive-energy spectra.

- A fast centrality-meter for heavy-ion collisions at the CBM experiment (2020)
- A new method of event characterization based on Deep Learning is presented. The PointNet models can be used for fast, online event-by-event impact parameter determination at the CBM experiment. For this study, UrQMD and the CBM detector simulation are used to generate Au+Au collision events at 10 AGeV which are then used to train and evaluate PointNet based architectures. The models can be trained on features like the hit position of particles in the CBM detector planes, tracks reconstructed from the hits or combinations thereof. The Deep Learning models reconstruct impact parameters from 2-14 fm with a mean error varying from -0.33 to 0.22 fm. For impact parameters in the range of 5-14 fm, a model which uses the combination of hit and track information of particles has a relative precision of 4-9% and a mean error of -0.33 to 0.13 fm. In the same range of impact parameters, a model with only track information has a relative precision of 4-10% and a mean error of -0.18 to 0.22 fm. This new method of event-classification is shown to be more accurate and less model dependent than conventional methods and can utilize the performance boost of modern GPU processor units.

- Feeddown contributions from unstable nuclei in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (2020)
- We estimate the feeddown contributions from decays of unstable A=4 and A=5 nuclei to the final yields of protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He, and 4He produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at sNN>2.4 GeV, using the statistical model. The feeddown contribution effects do not exceed 5% at LHC and top RHIC energies due to the large penalty factors involved, but are substantial at intermediate collision energies. We observe large feeddown contributions for tritons, 3He, and 4He at sNN≲10 GeV, where they may account for as much as 70% of the final yield at the lower end of the collision energies considered. Sizable (>10%) effects for deuteron yields are observed at sNN≲4 GeV. The results suggest that the excited nuclei feeddown cannot be neglected in the ongoing and future analysis of light nuclei production at intermediate collision energies, including HADES and CBM experiments at FAIR, NICA at JINR, RHIC beam energy scan and fixed-target programmes, and NA61/SHINE at CERN. We further show that the freeze-out curve in the T-μB plane itself is affected significantly by the light nuclei at high baryochemical potential.

- Conserved charge fluctuations are not conserved during the hadronic phase (2017)
- We study the correlation between the distributions of the net-charge, net-kaon, net-baryon and net-proton number at hadronization and after the final hadronic decoupling by simulating ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions with the hybrid version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. We find that due to the hadronic rescattering these distributions are not strongly correlated. The calculated change of the correlation, during the hadronic expansion stage, does not support the recent paradigm, namely that the measured final moments of the experimentally observed distributions do give directly the values of those distributions at earlier times, when the system had been closer to the QCD crossover.