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- Energie (4)
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- Hadronic freeze-out following a first order hadronization phase transition in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1999)
- We analyze the hadronic freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC in a transport approach which combines hydrodynamics for the early, dense, deconfined stage of the reaction with a microscopic non-equilibrium model for the later hadronic stage at which the hydrodynamic equilibrium assumptions are not valid. With this ansatz we are able to self-consistently calculate the freeze-out of the system and determine space-time hypersurfaces for individual hadron species. The space-time domains of the freeze-out for several hadron species are found to be actually four-dimensional, and di er drastically for the individual hadrons species. Freeze-out radii distributions are similar in width for most hadron species, even though the is found to be emitted rather close to the phase boundary and shows the smallest freeze- out radii and times among all baryon species. The total lifetime of the system does not change by more than 10% when going from SPS to RHIC energies.

- Hot hypernuclear matter in the modified quark meson coupling model (1999)
- Hot hypernuclear matter is investigated in an explicit SU(3) quark model based on a mean field description of nonoverlapping baryon bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of scalar sigma, zeta and vector omega,phi mesons. The sigma, omega mean fields are assumed to couple to the u, d-quarks while the zeta ,phi mean fields are coupled to the s-quark. The coupling constants of the mean fields with the quarks are assumed to satisfy SU(6) symmetry. The calculations take into account the medium dependence of the bag parameter on the scalar fields sigma, zeta. We consider only the octet baryons N,Lambda,Sigma, Xi in hypernuclear matter. An ideal gas of the strange mesons K and K is introduced to keep zero net strangeness density. Our results for symmetric hypernuclear matter show that a phase transition takes place at a critical temperature around 180 MeV in which the scalar mean fields sigma, zeta take nonzero values at zero baryon density. Furthermore, the bag contants of the baryons decrease significantly at and above this critical temperature indicating the onset of quark deconfinement. The present results imply that the onset of quark deconfinement in SU(3) hypernuclear matter is much stronger than in SU(2) nuclear matter. PACS:21.65.+f, 24.85.+p, 12.39Ba

- Analysis of reaction dynamics at RHIC in a combined parton/hadron transport approach (1999)
- We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade model, hadronization is performed via a cluster hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and the hadronic phase is described by a microscopic hadronic transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics indicates a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse radii increase by factors of 2 3 depending on the hadron species.

- Non-equilibrium initial conditions from pQCD for RHIC and LHC (1999)
- We calculate the initial non-equilibrium conditions from perturbative QCD (pQCD) within Glauber multiple scattering theory for s = 200 AGeV and s = 5.5 ATeV. At the soon available collider energies one will particularly test the small x region of the parton distributions entering the cross sections. Therefore shadowing effects, previously more or less unimportant, will lead to new e ects on variables such as particle multiplicities dN/dy, transverse energy production d T /dy, and the initial temperature Ti. In this paper we will have a closer look on the effects of shadowing by employing di erent parametrizations for the shadowing effect for valence quarks, sea quarks and gluons. Since the cross sections at midrapidity are dominated by processes involving gluons the amount of their depletion is particularly important. We will therefore have a closer look on the results for dN/dy, d ¯E T /dy, and Ti by using two different gluon shadowing ratios, di ering strongly in size. As a matter of fact, the calculated quantities di er significantly.

- Nonequilibrium dynamics of a hadronizing quark gluon plasma (1999)
- We investigate the hadronic cooling of a quark droplet within a microscopic model. The color flux tube approach is used to describe the hadronization of the quark phase. The model reproduces experimental particle ratios equally well compared to a static thermal hadronic source. Furthermore, the dynamics of the decomposition of a quark-gluon plasma is investigated and time dependent particle ratios are found.

- Moments of event observable distributions and many-body correlations (1999)
- We investigate event-by-event fluctuations for ensembles with non-fixed multiplicity. Moments of event observable distributions, like total energy distribution, total transverse momentum distribution, etc, are shown to be related to the multi-body correlations present in the system. For classical systems, these moments reduce in the absence of any correlations to the mo- ments of particle inclusive momentum distribution. As a consequence, a zero value for the recently introduced Phi-variable is shown to indicate the van- ishing of two-body correlations from one part, and of correlations between multiplicity and momentum distributions from the other part. It is often misunderstood as a measure of the degree of equilibration in the system.

- Kinetic freeze out models (1999)
- Freeze out of particles across a space-time hypersurface is discussed in kinetic models. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with spacelike normals. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution does not resemble, the previously proposed, cut Jüttner distribution, and shows non-exponential pt-spectra similar to the ones observed in experiments. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q

- Relativistic Hartree approach including negative energy-bound states (1999)
- We develop a relativistic model to describe the bound states of positive energy and negative energy in finite nuclei at the same time. Instead of searching for the negative-energy solution of the nucleon s Dirac equation, we solve the Dirac equations for the nucleon and the anti-nucleon simultaneously. The single-particle energies of negative-energy nucleons are obtained through changing the sign of the single-particle energies of positive-energy anti-nucleons. The contributions of the Dirac sea to the source terms of the meson fields are evaluated by means of the derivative expansion up to the leading derivative order for the one-meson loop and one-nucleon loop. After refitting the parameters of the model to the properties of spherical nuclei, the results of positive-energy sector are similar to that calculated within the commonly used relativistic mean field theory under the no-sea approximation. However, the bound levels of negative-energy nucleons vary drastically when the vacuum contributions are taken into account. It implies that the negative-energy spectra deserve a sensitive probe to the e ective interactions in addition to the positive-energy spectra.

- Relativistic Hartree approach including both positive- and negative-energy bound states (1999)
- We develop a relativistic model to describe the bound states of positive energy and negative energy in finite nuclei at the same time. Instead of searching for the negative-energy solution of the nucleon's Dirac equation, we solve the Dirac equations for the nucleon and the anti-nucleon simultaneously. The single-particle energies of negative-energy nucleons are obtained through changing the sign of the single-particle energies of positive-energy anti-nucleons. The contributions of the Dirac sea to the source terms of the meson fields are evaluated by means of the derivative expansion up to the leading derivative order for the one-meson loop and one-nucleon loop. After refitting the parameters of the model to the properties of spherical nuclei, the results of positive-energy sector are similar to that calculated within the commonly used relativistic mean field theory under the no-sea approximation. However, the bound levels of negative-energy nucleons vary drastically when the vacuum contributions are taken into account. It implies that the negative-energy spectra deserve a sensitive probe to the effective interactions in addition to the positive-energy spectra.

- Neutron star properties in the quark-meson coupling model (1999)
- The effects of internal quark structure of baryons on the composition and structure of neutron star matter with hyperons are investigated in the quark- meson coupling (QMC) model. The QMC model is based on mean-field description of nonoverlapping spherical bags bound by self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The predictions of this model are compared with quantum hadrodynamic (QHD) model calibrated to reproduce identical nuclear matter saturation properties. By employing a density dependent bag constant through direct coupling to the scalar field, the QMC model is found to exhibit identical properties as QHD near saturation density. Furthermore, this modified QMC model provides well-behaved and continuous solutions at high densities relevant to the core of neutron stars. Two additional strange mesons are introduced which couple only to the strange quark in the QMC model and to the hyperons in the QHD model. The constitution and structure of stars with hyperons in the QMC and QHD models reveal interesting di erences. This suggests the importance of quark structure e ects in the baryons at high densities. PACS number(s): 26.60.+c, 21.65.+f, 12.39.Ba, 24.85.+p