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- Open charm and charmonium production at RHIC (2003)
- We calculate open charm and charmonium production in Au + Au reac- tions at ps = 200 GeV within the hadron-string dynamics (HSD) transport approach employing open charm cross sections from pN and N reactions that are fitted to results from PYTHIA and scaled in magnitude to the available experimental data. Charmonium dissociation with nucleons and formed mesons to open charm (D + ¯D pairs) is included dynamically. The comover dissociation cross sections are described by a simple phase-space model including a single free parameter, i.e. an interaction strength M2 0 , that is fitted to the J/ suppression data for Pb + Pb collisions at SPS energies. As a novel feature we implement the backward channels for char- monium reproduction by D ¯D channels employing detailed balance. From our dynamical calculations we find that the charmonium recreation is com- parable to the dissociation by comoving mesons. This leads to the final result that the total J/ suppression at ps = 200 GeV as a function of centrality is slightly less than the suppression seen at SPS energies by the NA50 Collaboration, where the comover dissociation is substantial and the backward channels play no role. Furthermore, even in case that all di- rectly produced J/ mesons dissociate immediately (or are not formed as a mesonic state), a sizeable amount of charmonia is found asymptotically due to the D + ! J/ + meson channels in central collisions of Au + Au at ps = 200 GeV which, however, is lower than the J/ yield expected from f pp collis ns.

- Exploring isospin, strangeness and charm distillation in heavy ion collisions (2003)
- The isospin and strangeness dimensions of the Equation of State are explored. RIA and the SIS200 accelerator at GSI will allow to explore these regions in compressed baryonic matter. 132 Sn + 132 Sn and 100 Sn + 100 Sn collisions as well as the excitation functions of K/pi, Lambda/pi and the centrality dependence of charmonium suppression from the UrQMD and HSD transport models are presented and compared to data. Unambiguous proof for the creation of a 'novel phase of matter' from strangeness and charm yields is not in sight.

- A micro-canonical description of hadron production in proton-proton collisions (2003)
- A micro-canonical treatment is used to study particle production in pp collisions. First this micro-canonical treatment is compared to some canonical ones. Then proton, antiproton and pion 4 pi multiplicities from proton-proton collisions at various center of mass energies are used to fix the micro-canonical parameters (E) and (V). The dependences of the micro-canonical parameters on the collision energy are parameterised for the further study of pp reactions with this micro-canonical treatment.

- Probing the minimal length scale by precision tests of the muon g-2 (2003)
- Modifications of the gyromagnetic moment of electrons and muons due to a minimal length scale combined with a modified fundamental scale M_f are explored. Deviations from the theoretical Standard Model value for g-2 are derived. Constraints for the fundamental scale M_f are given.

- Signatures in the Planck regime (2003)
- String theory suggests the existence of a minimum length scale. An exciting quantum mechanical implication of this feature is a modification of the uncertainty principle. In contrast to the conventional approach, this generalised uncertainty principle does not allow to resolve space time distances below the Planck length. In models with extra dimensions, which are also motivated by string theory, the Planck scale can be lowered to values accessible by ultra high energetic cosmic rays (UHECRs) and by future colliders, i.e. M f approximately equal to 1 TeV. It is demonstrated that in this novel scenario, short distance physics below 1/M f is completely cloaked by the uncertainty principle. Therefore, Planckian effects could be the final physics discovery at future colliders and in UHECRs. As an application, we predict the modifications to the e+ e- to f+ f- cross-sections.

- Black hole relics in large extra dimensions (2003)
- Recent calculations applying statistical mechanics indicate that in a setting with compactified large extra dimensions a black hole might evolve into a (quasi-)stable state with mass close to the new fundamental scale M f. Black holes and therefore their relics might be produced at the LHC in the case of extra-dimensional topologies. In this energy regime, Hawking's evaporation scenario is modified due to energy conservation and quantum effects. We reanalyse the evaporation of small black holes including the quantisation of the emitted radiation due to the finite surface of the black hole. It is found that observable stable black hole relics with masses sim 1-3 M f would form which could be identified by a delayed single jet with a corresponding hard momentum kick to the relic and by ionisation, e.g. in a TPC.

- Dynamics and freeze-out of hadron resonances at RHIC (2003)
- Yields, rapidity and transverse momentum spectra of Delta++(1232), Lambda(1520), Sigma+-(1385) and the meson resonances K0(892), Phi, rho0 and f0(980) are predicted. Hadronic rescattering leads to a suppression of reconstructable resonances, especially at low p_perp. A mass shift of the rho of 10 MeV is obtained from the microscopic simulation, due to late stage rho formation in the cooling pion gas.

- Strangeness dynamics in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision (2003)
- We investigate hadron production as well as transverse hadron spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2 A.GeV to 21.3 A.TeV within two independent transport approaches (UrQMD and HSD) that are based on quark, diquark, string and hadronic degrees of freedom. The comparison to experimental data demonstrates that both approaches agree quite well with each other and with the experimental data on hadron production. The enhancement of pion production in central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions relative to scaled pp collisions (the 'kink') is well described by both approaches without involving any phase transition. However, the maximum in the K+/Pi+ ratio at 20 to 30 A.GeV (the 'horn') is missed by ~ 40%. A comparison to the transverse mass spectra from pp and C+C (or Si+Si) reactions shows the reliability of the transport models for light systems. For central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at bombarding energies above ~ 5 A.GeV, however, the measured K +/- m-theta-spectra have a larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the calculations. The approximately constant slope of K+/-spectra at SPS (the 'step') is not reproduced either. Thus the pressure generated by hadronic interactions in the transport models above ~ 5 A.GeV is lower than observed in the experimental data. This finding suggests that the additional pressure - as expected from lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical potential and temperature - might be generated by strong interactions in the early pre-hadronic/partonic phase of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions.

- Evidence for nonhadronic degrees of freedom in the transverse mass spectra of kaons from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions? (2003)
- We investigate transverse hadron spectra from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions which reflect important aspects of the dynamics - such as the generation of pressure - in the hot and dense zone formed in the early phase of the reaction. Our analysis is performed within two independent transport approaches (HSD and UrQMD) that are based on quark, diquark, string and hadronic degrees of freedom. Both transport models show their reliability for elementary pp as well as light-ion (C+C, Si+Si) reactions. However, for central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions at bombarding energies above ~ 5 A.GeV the measured K+- transverse mass spectra have a larger inverse slope parameter than expected from the calculation. Thus the pressure generated by hadronic interactions in the transport models above ~ 5 A.GeV is lower than observed in the experimental data. This finding shows that the additional pressure - as expected from lattice QCD calculations at finite quark chemical potential and temperature - is generated by strong partonic interactions in the early phase of central Au+Au (Pb+Pb) collisions.

- A fast hybrid approach to air shower simulations and applications (2003)
- The SENECA model, a new hybrid approach to air shower simulations, is presented. It combines the use of efficient cascade equations in the energy range where a shower can be treated as one-dimensional, with a traditional Monte Carlo method which traces individual particles. This allows one to reproduce natural fluctuations of individual showers as well as the lateral spread of low energy particles. The model is quite efficient in computation time. As an application of the new approach, the influence of the low energy hadronic models on shower properties for AUGER energies is studied. We conclude that these models have a significant impact on the tails of lateral distribution functions, and deserve therefore more attention.