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- Repulsive baryonic interactions and lattice QCD observables at imaginary chemical potential (2017)
- The first principle lattice QCD methods allow to calculate the thermodynamic observables at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential. These can be compared to the predictions of various phenomenological models. We argue that Fourier coefficients with respect to imaginary baryochemical potential are sensitive to modeling of baryonic interactions. As a first application of this sensitivity, we consider the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model with repulsive baryonic interactions, which are modeled by means of the excluded volume correction. The Fourier coefficients of the imaginary part of the netbaryon density at imaginary baryochemical potential – corresponding to the fugacity or virial expansion at real chemical potential – are calculated within this model, and compared with the Nt = 12 lattice data. The lattice QCD behavior of the first four Fourier coefficients up to T 185 MeV is described fairly well by an interacting HRG with a single baryon–baryon eigenvolume interaction parameter b 1 fm3, while the available lattice data on the difference χB 2 − χB 4 of baryon number susceptibilities is reproduced up to T 175 MeV.

- Multiplicity dependence of light nuclei production at LHC energies in the canonical statistical model (2018)
- The statistical model with exact conservation of baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness – the Canonical Statistical Model (CSM) – is used to analyze the dependence of yields of light nuclei at midrapidity on charged pion multiplicity at the LHC. The CSM calculations are performed assuming baryon-symmetric matter, using the recently developed Thermal-FIST package. The light nuclei-to-proton yield ratios show a monotonic increase with charged pion multiplicity, with a saturation at the corresponding grand-canonical values in the high-multiplicity limit, in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data measured by the ALICE collaboration in pp and Pb–Pb collisions at different centralities and energies. Comparison with experimental data at low multiplicities shows that exact conservation of charges across more than one unit of rapidity and/or a chemical freeze-out temperature which decreases with the charged pion multiplicity improves agreement with the data.

- Neutron-star-merger equation of state (2019)
- In this work, we discuss the dense matter equation of state (EOS) for the extreme range of conditions encountered in neutron stars and their mergers. The calculation of the properties of such an EOS involves modeling different degrees of freedom (such as nuclei, nucleons, hyperons, and quarks), taking into account different symmetries, and including finite density and temperature effects in a thermodynamically consistent manner. We begin by addressing subnuclear matter consisting of nucleons and a small admixture of light nuclei in the context of the excluded volume approach. We then turn our attention to supranuclear homogeneous matter as described by the Chiral Mean Field (CMF) formalism. Finally, we present results from realistic neutron-star-merger simulations performed using the CMF model that predict signatures for deconfinement to quark matter in gravitational wave signals.

- Flow allocation in meshed AC-DC electricity grids (2020)
- In power systems, flow allocation (FA) methods enable to allocate the usage and costs of the transmission grid to each single market participant. Based on predefined assumptions, the power flow is split into isolated generator-specific or producer-specific sub-flows. Two prominent FA methods, Marginal Participation (MP) and Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges (EBEs), build upon the linearized power flow and thus on the Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs). Despite their intuitive and computationally efficient concepts, they are restricted to networks with passive transmission elements only. As soon as a significant number of controllable transmission elements, such as high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines, operate in the system, they lose their applicability. This work reformulates the two methods in terms of Virtual Injection Patterns (VIPs), which allows one to efficiently introduce a shift parameter q to tune contributions of net sources and net sinks in the network. In this work, major properties and differences in the methods are pointed out, and it is shown how the MP and EBE algorithms can be applied to generic meshed AC-DC electricity grids: by introducing a pseudo-impedance ω¯ , which reflects the operational state of controllable elements and allows one to extend the PTDF matrix under the assumption of knowing the current flow in the system. Basic properties from graph theory are used to solve for the pseudo-impedance in dependence of the position within the network. This directly enables, e.g., HVDC lines to be considered in the MP and EBE algorithms. The extended methods are applied to a low-carbon European network model (PyPSA-EUR) with a spatial resolution of 181 nodes and an 18% transmission expansion compared to today’s total transmission capacity volume. The allocations of MP and EBE show that countries with high wind potentials profit most from the transmission grid expansion. Based on the average usage of transmission system expansion, a method of distributing operational and capital expenditures is proposed. In addition, it is shown how injections from renewable resources strongly drive country-to-country allocations and thus cross-border electricity flows.

- Neutron star mergers: Probing the eos of hot, dense matter by gravitational waves (2019)
- Gravitational waves, electromagnetic radiation, and the emission of high energy particles probe the phase structure of the equation of state of dense matter produced at the crossroad of the closely related relativistic collisions of heavy ions and of binary neutron stars mergers. 3 + 1 dimensional special- and general relativistic hydrodynamic simulation studies reveal a unique window of opportunity to observe phase transitions in compressed baryon matter by laboratory based experiments and by astrophysical multimessenger observations. The astrophysical consequences of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of a compact star will be focused within this article. Especially with a future detection of the post-merger gravitational wave emission emanated from a binary neutron star merger event, it would be possible to explore the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics. The astrophysical observables of a hadron-quark phase transition in a single compact star system and binary hybrid star merger scenario will be summarized within this article. The FAIR facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum allows one to study the universe in the laboratory, and several astrophysical signatures of the quark-gluon plasma have been found in relativistic collisions of heavy ions and will be explored in future experiments.

- Detecting the hadron-quark phase transition with gravitational waves (2019)
- The long-awaited detection of a gravitational wave from the merger of a binary neutron star in August 2017 (GW170817) marks the beginning of the new field of multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy. By exploiting the extracted tidal deformations of the two neutron stars from the late inspiral phase of GW170817, it is now possible to constrain several global properties of the equation of state of neutron star matter. However, the most interesting part of the high density and temperature regime of the equation of state is solely imprinted in the post-merger gravitational wave emission from the remnant hypermassive/supramassive neutron star. This regime was not observed in GW170817, but will possibly be detected in forthcoming events within the current observing run of the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration. Numerous numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries have been performed during the last decades, and the emitted gravitational wave profiles and the interior structure of the generated remnants have been analysed in detail. The consequences of a potential appearance of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior region of the produced hypermassive neutron star and the evolution of its underlying matter in the phase diagram of quantum cromo dynamics will be in the focus of this article. It will be shown that the different density/temperature regions of the equation of state can be severely constrained by a measurement of the spectral properties of the emitted post-merger gravitational wave signal from a future binary compact star merger event.

- The enhancement of v4 in nuclear collisions at the highest densities signals a first-order phase transition (2018)
- The beam energy dependence of v4 (the quadrupole moment of the transverse radial flow) is sensitive to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) in mid-central Au + Au collisions at the energy range of 3<sNN−−−−√<30 GeV, which is investigated within the hadronic transport model JAM. Different equations of state, namely, a free hadron gas, a first-order phase transition and a crossover are compared. An enhancement of v4 at sNN−−−−√≈6 GeV is predicted for an EoS with a first-order phase transition. This enhanced v4 flow is driven by both the enhancement of v2 as well as the positive contribution to v4 from the squeeze-out of spectator particles which turn into participants due to the admixture of the strong collective flow in the shocked, compressed nuclear matter.

- Identifying QCD transition using deep learning (2018)
- In this proceeding we review our recent work using supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to identify the QCD equation of state (EoS) employed in hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions given only final-state particle spectra ρ(pT, Ф). We showed that there is a traceable encoder of the dynamical information from phase structure (EoS) that survives the evolution and exists in the final snapshot, which enables the trained CNN to act as an effective “EoS-meter” in detecting the nature of the QCD transition.

- Final state hadronic rescattering with UrQMD (2018)
- In this talk we discuss the effects of the hadronic rescattering on final state observables in high energy nuclear collisions. We do so by employing the UrQMD transport model for a realistic description of the hadronic decoupling process. The rescattering of hadrons modifies every hadronic bulk observable. For example apparent multiplicity of resonances is suppressed as compared to a chemical equilibrium freeze-out model. Stable and unstable particles change their momentum distribution by more than 30% through rescattering. The hadronic rescattering also leads to a substantial decorrelation of the conserved charge distributions. These findings show that it is all but trivial to conclude from the final state observables on the properties of the system at an earlier time where it may have been in or close to local equilibrium.

- An equation-of-state-meter of quantum chromodynamics transition from deep learning (2018)
- A primordial state of matter consisting of free quarks and gluons that existed in the early universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang is also expected to form in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Determining the equation of state (EoS) of such a primordial matter is the ultimate goal of high-energy heavy-ion experiments. Here we use supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network to identify the EoS employed in the relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions. High-level correlations of particle spectra in transverse momentum and azimuthal angle learned by the network act as an effective EoS-meter in deciphering the nature of the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics. Such EoS-meter is model-independent and insensitive to other simulation inputs including the initial conditions for hydrodynamic simulations.