- Article (18) (remove)
- C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 promotes liver injury via the mitochondrial permeability transition after hemorrhage and resuscitation (2012)
- Hemorrhagic shock leads to hepatic hypoperfusion and activation of mitogen-activated stress kinases (MAPK) like c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 and 2. Our aim was to determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction leading to hepatic necrosis and apoptosis after hemorrhage/resuscitation (H/R) was dependent on JNK2. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, wildtype (WT) and JNK2 deficient (KO) mice were hemorrhaged to 30 mm Hg for 3 h and then resuscitated with shed blood plus half the volume of lactated Ringer's solution. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrosis, apoptosis and oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after resuscitation. Mitochondrial polarization was assessed by intravital microscopy. After H/R, ALT in WT-mice increased from 130 U/L to 4800 U/L. In KO-mice, ALT after H/R was blunted to 1800 U/l (P < 0.05). Necrosis, caspase-3 activity and ROS were all substantially decreased in KO compared to WT mice after H/R. After sham operation, intravital microscopy revealed punctate mitochondrial staining by rhodamine 123 (Rh123), indicating normal mitochondrial polarization. At 4 h after H/R, Rh123 staining became dim and diffuse in 58% of hepatocytes, indicating depolarization and onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). By contrast, KO mice displayed less depolarization after H/R (23%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, JNK2 contributes to MPT-mediated liver injury after H/R.
- Human endothelial-like differentiated precursor cells maintain their endothelial characteristics when cocultured with mesenchymal stem cell and seeded onto human cancellous bone (2013)
- Introduction. Cancellous bone is frequently used for filling bone defects in a clinical setting. It provides favourable conditions for regenerative cells such as MSC and early EPC. The combination of MSC and EPC results in superior bone healing in experimental bone healing models. Materials and Methods. We investigated the influence of osteogenic culture conditions on the endothelial properties of early EPC and the osteogenic properties of MSC when cocultured on cancellous bone. Additionally, cell adhesion, metabolic activity, and differentiation were assessed 2, 6, and 10 days after seeding. Results. The number of adhering EPC and MSC decreased over time; however the cells remained metabolically active over the 10-day measurement period. In spite of a decline of lineage specific markers, cells maintained their differentiation to a reduced level. Osteogenic stimulation of EPC caused a decline but not abolishment of endothelial characteristics and did not induce osteogenic gene expression. Osteogenic stimulation of MSC significantly increased their metabolic activity whereas collagen-1α and alkaline phosphatase gene expressions declined. When cocultured with EPC, MSC’s collagen-1α gene expression increased significantly. Conclusion. EPC and MSC can be cocultured in vitro on cancellous bone under osteogenic conditions, and coculturing EPC with MSC stabilizes the latter’s collagen-1α gene expression.
- Effect of sonic hedgehog/β-TCP composites on bone healing within the critical-sized rat femoral defect (2013)
- The creation of entirely synthetically derived bone substitute materials which are as effective as autologous bone grafts is desirable. Osteogenesis involves the concerted action of several proteins within a signaling cascade. Hedgehog proteins act upstream of this cascade, inducing the expression of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and promoting physiological bone healing. Therefore, the hypothesis that hedgehog signaling in bone defects improves bone healing more than BMP signaling alone was tested. Recombinant N-terminal sonic hedgehog protein (N-SHh), BMP-2 or a combination of the two was added to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and 5-mm femoral midshaft defects in nude rats were filled with these composites. The defects were stabilized with mini-plates. After eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the femora were explanted. The radiological evaluation was followed by a three-point bending test and histological examination. BMP-2/β-TCP composites showed a trend of increased stiffness compared with the controls (β-TCP without protein). N-SHh/β-TCP composites had lower stiffness compared with the control group and the N-SHh/BMP-2/β-TCP composites also had lower average stiffness compared with the controls (all not significant). Histomorphometry, however, revealed abundant cartilage and bone core formation in the N-SHh-composite groups. The sum of the new cartilage and bone was highest in the combination group N-SHh/BMP-2 (not significant). The addition of N-SHh to bone substitute materials appears to delay bone healing at the applied concentration and observation time but also showed a trend for higher amounts of ossifying cartilage.
- Predictors of pulmonary failure following severe trauma: a trauma registry-based analysis (2013)
- Background: The incidence of pulmonary failure in trauma patients is considered to be influenced by several factors such as liver injury. We intended to assess the association of various potential predictors of pulmonary failure following thoracic trauma and liver injury. Methods: Records of 12,585 trauma patients documented in the TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Trauma Society were analyzed regarding the potential impact of concomitant liver injury on the incidence of pulmonary failure using uni- and multivariate analyses. Pulmonary failure was defined as pulmonary failure of ≥ 3 SOFA-score points for at least two days. Patients were subdivided according to their injury pattern into four groups: group 1: AIS thorax < 3; AIS liver < 3; group 2: AIS thorax ≥ 3; AIS liver < 3; group 3: AIS thorax < 3; AIS liver ≥ 3 and group 4: AIS thorax ≥ 3; AIS liver ≥ 3. Results: Overall, 2643 (21%) developed pulmonary failure, 12% (n= 642) in group 1, 26% (n= 697) in group 2, 16% (n= 30) in group 3, and 36% (n= 188) in group 4. Factors independently associated with pulmonary failure included relevant lung injury, pre-existing medical conditions (PMC), sex, transfusion of more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8, and the ISS. However, liver injury was not associated with an increased risk of pulmonary failure following severe trauma in our setting. Conclusions: Specific factors, but not liver injury, were associated with an increased risk of pulmonary failure following trauma. Trauma surgeons should be aware of these factors for optimized intensive care treatment.
- High Calcium Bioglass Enhances Differentiation and Survival of Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Inducing Early Vascularization in Critical Size Bone Defects (2013)
- Early vascularization is a prerequisite for successful bone healing and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), seeded on appropriate biomaterials, can improve vascularization. The type of biomaterial influences EPC function with bioglass evoking a vascularizing response. In this study the influence of a composite biomaterial based on polylactic acid (PLA) and either 20 or 40% bioglass, BG20 and BG40, respectively, on the differentiation and survival of EPCs in vitro was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of the composite material on early vascularization in a rat calvarial critical size defect model with or without EPCs was evaluated. Human EPCs were cultured with β-TCP, PLA, BG20 or BG40, and seeding efficacy, cell viability, cell morphology and apoptosis were analysed in vitro. BG40 released the most calcium, and improved endothelial differentiation and vitality best. This effect was mimicked by adding an equivalent amount of calcium to the medium and was diminished in the presence of the calcium chelator, EGTA. To analyze the effect of BG40 and EPCs in vivo, a 6-mm diameter critical size calvarial defect was created in rats (n = 12). Controls (n = 6) received BG40 and the treatment group (n = 6) received BG40 seeded with 5×105 rat EPCs. Vascularization after 1 week was significantly improved when EPCs were seeded onto BG40, compared to implanting BG40 alone. This indicates that Ca2+ release improves EPC differentiation and is useful for enhanced early vascularization in critical size bone defects.
- Safety Evaluation of a Bioglass–Polylactic Acid Composite Scaffold Seeded with Progenitor Cells in a Rat Skull Critical-Size Bone Defect (2014)
- Treating large bone defects represents a major challenge in traumatic and orthopedic surgery. Bone tissue engineering provides a promising therapeutic option to improve the local bone healing response. In the present study tissue biocompatibility, systemic toxicity and tumorigenicity of a newly developed composite material consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and 20% or 40% bioglass (BG20 and BG40), respectively, were analyzed. These materials were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and tested in a rat calvarial critical size defect model for 3 months and compared to a scaffold consisting only of PLA. Serum was analyzed for organ damage markers such as GOT and creatinine. Leukocyte count, temperature and free radical indicators were measured to determine the degree of systemic inflammation. Possible tumor occurrence was assessed macroscopically and histologically in slides of liver, kidney and spleen. Furthermore, the concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and sodium oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed as indicators of tumor progression. Qualitative tissue response towards the implants and new bone mass formation was histologically investigated. BG20 and BG40, with or without progenitor cells, did not cause organ damage, long-term systemic inflammatory reactions or tumor formation. BG20 and BG40 supported bone formation, which was further enhanced in the presence of EPCs and MSCs. This investigation reflects good biocompatibility of the biomaterials BG20 and BG40 and provides evidence that additionally seeding EPCs and MSCs onto the scaffold does not induce tumor formation.
- Chronic ethanol feeding modulates inflammatory mediators, activation of nuclear factor-κB, and responsiveness to endotoxin in murine Kupffer cells and circulating leukocytes (2014)
- Chronic ethanol abuse is known to increase susceptibility to infections after injury, in part, by modification of macrophage function. Several intracellular signalling mechanisms are involved in the initiation of inflammatory responses, including the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In this study, we investigated the systemic and hepatic effect of chronic ethanol feeding on in vivo activation of NF-κB in NF-κB(EGFP) reporter gene mice. Specifically, the study focused on Kupffer cell proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and activation of NF-κB after chronic ethanol feeding followed by in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that chronic ethanol upregulated NF-κB activation and increased hepatic and systemic proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similarly, LPS-stimulated IL-1 β release from whole blood was significantly enhanced in ethanol-fed mice. However, LPS significantly increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol feeding can improve the responsiveness of macrophage LPS-stimulated IL-6 and TNF-α production and indicate that this effect may result from ethanol-induced alterations in intracellular signalling through NF-κB. Furthermore, LPS and TNF-α stimulated the gene expression of different inflammatory mediators, in part, in a NF-κB-dependent manner.
- Delayed wound repair in sepsis is associated with reduced local pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (2013)
- Sepsis is one of the main causes for morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Moreover, sepsis associated complications involving impaired wound healing are common. Septic patients often require surgical interventions that in-turn may lead to further complications caused by impaired wound healing. We established a mouse model to the study delayed wound healing during sepsis distant to the septic focus point. For this reason cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was combined with the creation of a superficial wound on the mouse ear. Control animals received the same procedure without CPL. Epithelialization was measured every second day by direct microscopic visualization up to complete closure of the wound. As interplay of TNF-α, TGF-β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) is important in wound healing in general, TNF-α, TGF-β, MMP7, and TIMP1 were assessed immunohistochemical in samples of wounded ears harvested on days 2, 6, 10 and 16 after wounding. After induction of sepsis, animals showed a significant delay in wound epithelialization from day 2 to 12 compared to control animals. Complete wound healing was attained after mean 12.2± standard deviation (SD) 3.0 days in septic animals compared to 8.7± SD 1.7 days in the control group. Septic animals showed a significant reduction in local pro-inflammatory cytokine level of TNF-α on day 2 and day 6 as well as a reduced expression of TGF-β on day 2 in wounds. A significant lower expression of MMP7 as well as TIMP1 was also observed on day 2 after wounding. The induction of sepsis impairs wound healing distant to the septic focus point. We could demonstrate that expression of important cytokines for wound repair is deregulated after induction of sepsis. Thus restoring normal cytokine response locally in wounds could be a good strategy to enhance wound repair in sepsis.