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- A micro-canonical description of hadron production in proton-proton collisions (2003)
- A micro-canonical treatment is used to study particle production in pp collisions. First this micro-canonical treatment is compared to some canonical ones. Then proton, antiproton and pion 4 pi multiplicities from proton-proton collisions at various center of mass energies are used to fix the micro-canonical parameters (E) and (V). The dependences of the micro-canonical parameters on the collision energy are parameterised for the further study of pp reactions with this micro-canonical treatment.

- Micro-canonical hadron production in pp collisions (2003)
- We apply a microcanonical statistical model to investigate hadron production in pp collisions. The parameters of the model are the energy E and the volume V of the system, which we determine via fitting the average multiplicity of charged pions, protons and antiprotons in pp collisions at different collision energies. We then make predictions of mean multiplicities and mean transverse momenta of all identified hadrons. Our predictions on nonstrange hadrons are in good agreement with the data, the mean transverse momenta of strange hadron as well. However, the mean multiplicities of strange hadrons are overpredicted. This agrees with canonical and grandcanonical studies, where a strange suppression factor is needed. We also investigate the influence of event-by-event fluctuations of the E parameter.

- Microscopic calculations of stopping and flow from 160AMeV to 160AGeV (1996)
- The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is studied within Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (URQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS. Effects of a density dependent pole of the rho-meson propagator on dilepton spectra are studied for different systems and centralities at CERN energies.

- Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- In this paper, the concepts of microscopic transport theory are introduced and the features and shortcomings of the most commonly used ansatzes are discussed. In particular, the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model is described in great detail. Based on the same principles as QMD and RQMD, it incorporates a vastly extended collision term with full baryon-antibaryon symmetry, 55 baryon and 32 meson species. Isospin is explicitly treated for all hadrons. The range of applicability stretches from E lab < 100$ MeV/nucleon up to E lab> 200$ GeV/nucleon, allowing for a consistent calculation of excitation functions from the intermediate energy domain up to ultrarelativistic energies. The main physics topics under discussion are stopping, particle production and collective flow.

- Modelling the many-body dynamics of heavy ion collisions (1997)
- Basic problems of the semiclassical microscopic modelling of strongly interacting systems are discussed within the framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD). This model allows to study the influence of several types of nucleonic interactions on a large variety of observables and phenomena occur- ring in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. It is shown that the same predictions can be obtained with several numerically completely di erent and independently written programs as far as the same model parameters are employed and the same basic approximations are made. Many observ- ables are robust against variations of the details of the model assumptions used. Some of the physical results, however, depend also on rather technical parameters like the preparation of the initial configuration in phase space. This crucial problem is connected with the description of the ground state of single nuclei, which di ers among the various approaches. An outlook to an improved molecular dynamics scheme for heavy ion collisions is given.

- Signatures of dense hadronic matter in ultrarelativistic heavy ion reactions (1996)
- The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is studied within Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (URQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS. Dilepton spectra are calculated with and without shifting the rho pole. Except for S+Au collisions our calculations reproduce the CERES data.

- Transport theories for heavy ion collisions in the 1 AGeV regime (2004)
- We compare multiplicities as well as rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of protons, pions and kaons calculated within presently available transport approaches for heavy ion collisions around 1 AGeV. For this purpose, three reactions have been selected: Au+Au at 1 and 1.48 AGeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 AGeV.