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#### Institute

- Final state hadronic rescattering with UrQMD (2018)
- In this talk we discuss the effects of the hadronic rescattering on final state observables in high energy nuclear collisions. We do so by employing the UrQMD transport model for a realistic description of the hadronic decoupling process. The rescattering of hadrons modifies every hadronic bulk observable. For example apparent multiplicity of resonances is suppressed as compared to a chemical equilibrium freeze-out model. Stable and unstable particles change their momentum distribution by more than 30% through rescattering. The hadronic rescattering also leads to a substantial decorrelation of the conserved charge distributions. These findings show that it is all but trivial to conclude from the final state observables on the properties of the system at an earlier time where it may have been in or close to local equilibrium.

- Melting and freeze-out conditions of hadrons in a thermal medium (2018)
- We describe two independent frameworks which provide unambiguous determinations of the deconfinement and the decoupling conditions of a relativistic gas at finite temperature. First, we use the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona–Lasinio model to compute meson and baryon masses at finite temperature and determine their melting temperature as a function of their strangeness content. Second, we analyze a simple expanding gas within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, which admits a well-defined decoupling mechanism. We examine the decoupling time as a function of the particle mass and cross section. We find evidences of an inherent dependence of the hadronization and freeze-out conditions on flavor, and on mass and cross section, respectively.

- Conserved charge fluctuations are not conserved during the hadronic phase (2017)
- We study the correlation between the distributions of the net-charge, net-kaon, net-baryon and net-proton number at hadronization and after the final hadronic decoupling by simulating ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions with the hybrid version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. We find that due to the hadronic rescattering these distributions are not strongly correlated. The calculated change of the correlation, during the hadronic expansion stage, does not support the recent paradigm, namely that the measured final moments of the experimentally observed distributions do give directly the values of those distributions at earlier times, when the system had been closer to the QCD crossover.

- How can we explore the onset of deconfinement by experiment? (2007)
- There is little doubt that Quantumchromodynamics (QCD) is the theory which describes strong interaction physics. Lattice gauge simulations of QCD predict that in the m,T plane there is a line where a transition from confined hadronic matter to deconfined quarks takes place. The transition is either a cross over (at low m) or of first order (at high m). It is the goal of the present and future heavy ion experiment at RHIC and FAIR to study this phase transition at different locations in the m,T plane and to explore the properties of the deconfined phase. It is the purpose of this contribution to discuss some of the observables which are considered as useful for this purpose.

- Transport theories for heavy ion collisions in the 1 AGeV regime (2004)
- We compare multiplicities as well as rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of protons, pions and kaons calculated within presently available transport approaches for heavy ion collisions around 1 AGeV. For this purpose, three reactions have been selected: Au+Au at 1 and 1.48 AGeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 AGeV.

- A micro-canonical description of hadron production in proton-proton collisions (2003)
- A micro-canonical treatment is used to study particle production in pp collisions. First this micro-canonical treatment is compared to some canonical ones. Then proton, antiproton and pion 4 pi multiplicities from proton-proton collisions at various center of mass energies are used to fix the micro-canonical parameters (E) and (V). The dependences of the micro-canonical parameters on the collision energy are parameterised for the further study of pp reactions with this micro-canonical treatment.

- Micro-canonical hadron production in pp collisions (2003)
- We apply a microcanonical statistical model to investigate hadron production in pp collisions. The parameters of the model are the energy E and the volume V of the system, which we determine via fitting the average multiplicity of charged pions, protons and antiprotons in pp collisions at different collision energies. We then make predictions of mean multiplicities and mean transverse momenta of all identified hadrons. Our predictions on nonstrange hadrons are in good agreement with the data, the mean transverse momenta of strange hadron as well. However, the mean multiplicities of strange hadrons are overpredicted. This agrees with canonical and grandcanonical studies, where a strange suppression factor is needed. We also investigate the influence of event-by-event fluctuations of the E parameter.

- Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- In this paper, the concepts of microscopic transport theory are introduced and the features and shortcomings of the most commonly used ansatzes are discussed. In particular, the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model is described in great detail. Based on the same principles as QMD and RQMD, it incorporates a vastly extended collision term with full baryon-antibaryon symmetry, 55 baryon and 32 meson species. Isospin is explicitly treated for all hadrons. The range of applicability stretches from E lab < 100$ MeV/nucleon up to E lab> 200$ GeV/nucleon, allowing for a consistent calculation of excitation functions from the intermediate energy domain up to ultrarelativistic energies. The main physics topics under discussion are stopping, particle production and collective flow.

- Modelling the many-body dynamics of heavy ion collisions (1997)
- Basic problems of the semiclassical microscopic modelling of strongly interacting systems are discussed within the framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD). This model allows to study the influence of several types of nucleonic interactions on a large variety of observables and phenomena occur- ring in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. It is shown that the same predictions can be obtained with several numerically completely di erent and independently written programs as far as the same model parameters are employed and the same basic approximations are made. Many observ- ables are robust against variations of the details of the model assumptions used. Some of the physical results, however, depend also on rather technical parameters like the preparation of the initial configuration in phase space. This crucial problem is connected with the description of the ground state of single nuclei, which di ers among the various approaches. An outlook to an improved molecular dynamics scheme for heavy ion collisions is given.

- Microscopic calculations of stopping and flow from 160AMeV to 160AGeV (1996)
- The behavior of hadronic matter at high baryon densities is studied within Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (URQMD). Baryonic stopping is observed for Au+Au collisions from SIS up to SPS energies. The excitation function of flow shows strong sensitivities to the underlying equation of state (EOS), allowing for systematic studies of the EOS. Effects of a density dependent pole of the rho-meson propagator on dilepton spectra are studied for different systems and centralities at CERN energies.