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#### Institute

- Hadron resonance production and final state hadronic interactions with UrQMD at LHC (2015)
- We discuss the effects of the final hadronic state, in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions, on hadronic resonance properties and measurable production rates. In particular we will compare our results with recent ALICE data on resonance production. We show that the hadronic phase of the system evolution has a considerable impact on the measured resonance ratios and pT spectra. We also discuss some of the remaining uncertainties in the model and how they may be addressed in future studies.

- Final state hadronic rescattering with UrQMD (2018)
- In this talk we discuss the effects of the hadronic rescattering on final state observables in high energy nuclear collisions. We do so by employing the UrQMD transport model for a realistic description of the hadronic decoupling process. The rescattering of hadrons modifies every hadronic bulk observable. For example apparent multiplicity of resonances is suppressed as compared to a chemical equilibrium freeze-out model. Stable and unstable particles change their momentum distribution by more than 30% through rescattering. The hadronic rescattering also leads to a substantial decorrelation of the conserved charge distributions. These findings show that it is all but trivial to conclude from the final state observables on the properties of the system at an earlier time where it may have been in or close to local equilibrium.

- Correlated D-meson decays competing against thermal QGP dilepton radiation (2013)
- The QGP that might be created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is expected to radiate thermal dilepton radiation. However, this thermal dilepton radiation interferes with dileptons originating from hadron decays. In the invariant mass region between the f and J=y peak (1GeV <= M l+l <=. 3GeV) the most substantial background of hadron decays originates from correlated DD¯ -meson decays. We evaluate this background using a Langevin simulation for charm quarks. As background medium we utilize the well-tested UrQMD-hybrid model. The required drag and diffusion coefficients are taken from a resonance approach. The decoupling of the charm quarks from the hot medium is performed at a temperature of 130MeV and as hadronization mechanism a coalescence approach is chosen. This model for charm quark interactions with the medium has already been successfully applied to the study of the medium modification and the elliptic flow at FAIR, RHIC and LHC energies. In this proceeding we present our results for the dilepton radiation from correlated D¯D decays at RHIC energy in comparison to PHENIX measurements in the invariant mass range between 1 and 3 GeV using different interaction scenarios. These results can be utilized to estimate the thermal QGP radiation.

- Hadronic freeze-out in A+A collisions meets the lattice QCD parton-hadron transition line (2013)
- We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. Employing the UrQMD hybrid transport model we study the effects of the final hadron/resonance expansion phase on the hadron multiplicities established at hadronization. The bulk meson yields freeze out directly at hadronization whereas the baryon-antibaryon sector is subject to significant alterations, due to annihilation and regeneration processes. We quantify the latter changes by survival factors for each species which are applied to modify the statistical model predictions for the data. The modified SM analysis recovers the hadronization points, which coincide with the recent lattice QCD predictions of the parton-hadron transition line at finite baryochemical potential.

- Hadronization, chemical equilibrium and chemical freeze-out (2013)
- Recent results on baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions show that a revision of the chemical freeze-out conditions is necessary. Particularly, there is evidence that chemical freezeout does not occur at full chemical equilibrium. We present a method to reconstruct original hadronization conditions and show that the newly found points in the T − µB plane are in very good agreement with extrapolations of the lattice QCD critical line.

- Phase structure of strongly interacting matter and simulations of heavy-ion collisions using a quark-hadron model (2010)
- Abstract We consider the phase structure of hadronic and hadron-quark models at finite temperature and density. The basis for the hadronic part is an extension of a flavor-SU(3) ? ? ? model. We study the effect on the phase diagram by adding additional hadronic resonances to the model. With the resulting equation of state we investigate heavy-ion c... collisions using hydrodynamical simulations. In a combined approach we include quarks and the Polyakov loop field in the calculation and study chiral symmetry restoration and the deconfinement transition.

- Neutron star mergers: Probing the eos of hot, dense matter by gravitational waves (2019)
- Gravitational waves, electromagnetic radiation, and the emission of high energy particles probe the phase structure of the equation of state of dense matter produced at the crossroad of the closely related relativistic collisions of heavy ions and of binary neutron stars mergers. 3 + 1 dimensional special- and general relativistic hydrodynamic simulation studies reveal a unique window of opportunity to observe phase transitions in compressed baryon matter by laboratory based experiments and by astrophysical multimessenger observations. The astrophysical consequences of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of a compact star will be focused within this article. Especially with a future detection of the post-merger gravitational wave emission emanated from a binary neutron star merger event, it would be possible to explore the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics. The astrophysical observables of a hadron-quark phase transition in a single compact star system and binary hybrid star merger scenario will be summarized within this article. The FAIR facility at GSI Helmholtzzentrum allows one to study the universe in the laboratory, and several astrophysical signatures of the quark-gluon plasma have been found in relativistic collisions of heavy ions and will be explored in future experiments.

- Detecting the hadron-quark phase transition with gravitational waves (2019)
- The long-awaited detection of a gravitational wave from the merger of a binary neutron star in August 2017 (GW170817) marks the beginning of the new field of multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy. By exploiting the extracted tidal deformations of the two neutron stars from the late inspiral phase of GW170817, it is now possible to constrain several global properties of the equation of state of neutron star matter. However, the most interesting part of the high density and temperature regime of the equation of state is solely imprinted in the post-merger gravitational wave emission from the remnant hypermassive/supramassive neutron star. This regime was not observed in GW170817, but will possibly be detected in forthcoming events within the current observing run of the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration. Numerous numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries have been performed during the last decades, and the emitted gravitational wave profiles and the interior structure of the generated remnants have been analysed in detail. The consequences of a potential appearance of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior region of the produced hypermassive neutron star and the evolution of its underlying matter in the phase diagram of quantum cromo dynamics will be in the focus of this article. It will be shown that the different density/temperature regions of the equation of state can be severely constrained by a measurement of the spectral properties of the emitted post-merger gravitational wave signal from a future binary compact star merger event.

- The enhancement of v4 in nuclear collisions at the highest densities signals a first-order phase transition (2018)
- The beam energy dependence of v4 (the quadrupole moment of the transverse radial flow) is sensitive to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) in mid-central Au + Au collisions at the energy range of 3<sNN−−−−√<30 GeV, which is investigated within the hadronic transport model JAM. Different equations of state, namely, a free hadron gas, a first-order phase transition and a crossover are compared. An enhancement of v4 at sNN−−−−√≈6 GeV is predicted for an EoS with a first-order phase transition. This enhanced v4 flow is driven by both the enhancement of v2 as well as the positive contribution to v4 from the squeeze-out of spectator particles which turn into participants due to the admixture of the strong collective flow in the shocked, compressed nuclear matter.

- Equation of state dependence of directed flow in a microscopic transport model (2017)
- We study the sensitivities of the directed flow in Au+Au collisions on the equation of state (EoS), employing the transport theoretical model JAM. The EoS is modified by introducing a new collision term in order to control the pressure of a system by appropriately selecting an azimuthal angle in two-body collisions according to a given EoS. It is shown that this approach is an efficient method to modify the EoS in a transport model. The beam energy dependence of the directed flow of protons is examined with two different EoS, a first-order phase transition and crossover. It is found that our approach yields quite similar results as hydrodynamical predictions on the beam energy dependence of the directed flow; Transport theory predicts a minimum in the excitation function of the slope of proton directed flow and does indeed yield negative directed flow, if the EoS with a first-order phase transition is employed. Our result strongly suggests that the highest sensitivity for the critical point can be seen in the beam energy range of 4.7 ≤√sNN≤11.5GeV.