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#### Institute

- A model for heavy ion collisions with quark and hadronic degrees of freedom (2010)
- The aim of this work is to develop an effective equation of state for QCD, having the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom, to be used as input for dynamical studies of heavy ion collisions. We present an approach for modeling an EoS that respects the symmetries underlying QCD, and includes the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons at high temperature and hadrons in the low-temperature limit. We achieve this by including quarks degrees of freedom and the thermal contribution of the Polyakov loop in a hadronic chiral sigma-omega model. The hadronic part of the model is a nonlinear realization of an sigma-omega model. As the fundamental symmetries of QCD should also be present in its hadronic states such an approach is widely used to describe hadron properties below and around Tc. The quarks are introduced as thermal quasi particles, coupling to the Polyakov loop, while the dynamics of the Polyakov loop are controlled by a potential term which is fitted to reproduce pure gauge lattice data. In this model the sigma field serves a the order parameter for chiral restoration and the Polyakov loop as order parameter for deconfinement. The hadrons are suppressed at high densities by excluded volume corrections. As a next step, we introduce our new HQ model equation of state in a microscopic+macroscopic hybrid approach to heavy ion collisions. This hybrid approach is based on the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The present implementation allows to compare pure microscopic transport calculations with hydrodynamic calculations using exactly the same initial conditions and freeze-out procedure. The effects of the change in the underlying dynamics - ideal fluid dynamics vs. non-equilibrium transport theory - are explored. The final pion and proton multiplicities are lower in the hybrid model calculation due to the isentropic hydrodynamic expansion while the yields for strange particles are enhanced due to the local equilibrium in the hydrodynamic evolution. The elliptic and directed flow are shown to be not sensitive to changes in the EoS while the smaller mean free path in the hydrodynamic evolution reflects directly in higher flow results which are consistent with the experimental data. This finding indicates qualitatively that physical mechanisms like viscosity and other non equilibrium effects play an essentially more important role than the EoS when bulk observables like flow are investigated. In the last chapter, results for the thermal production of MEMOs in nucleus-nucleus collisions from a combined micro+macro approach are presented. Multiplicities, rapidity and transverse momentum spectra are predicted for Pb+Pb interaction at different beam energies. The presented excitation functions for various MEMO multiplicities show a clear maximum at the upper FAIR energy regime making this facility the ideal place to study the production of these exotic forms of multistrange objects.

- Hadron resonance production and final state hadronic interactions with UrQMD at LHC (2015)
- We discuss the effects of the final hadronic state, in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions, on hadronic resonance properties and measurable production rates. In particular we will compare our results with recent ALICE data on resonance production. We show that the hadronic phase of the system evolution has a considerable impact on the measured resonance ratios and pT spectra. We also discuss some of the remaining uncertainties in the model and how they may be addressed in future studies.

- Final state hadronic rescattering with UrQMD (2018)
- In this talk we discuss the effects of the hadronic rescattering on final state observables in high energy nuclear collisions. We do so by employing the UrQMD transport model for a realistic description of the hadronic decoupling process. The rescattering of hadrons modifies every hadronic bulk observable. For example apparent multiplicity of resonances is suppressed as compared to a chemical equilibrium freeze-out model. Stable and unstable particles change their momentum distribution by more than 30% through rescattering. The hadronic rescattering also leads to a substantial decorrelation of the conserved charge distributions. These findings show that it is all but trivial to conclude from the final state observables on the properties of the system at an earlier time where it may have been in or close to local equilibrium.

- Correlated D-meson decays competing against thermal QGP dilepton radiation (2013)
- The QGP that might be created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is expected to radiate thermal dilepton radiation. However, this thermal dilepton radiation interferes with dileptons originating from hadron decays. In the invariant mass region between the f and J=y peak (1GeV <= M l+l <=. 3GeV) the most substantial background of hadron decays originates from correlated DD¯ -meson decays. We evaluate this background using a Langevin simulation for charm quarks. As background medium we utilize the well-tested UrQMD-hybrid model. The required drag and diffusion coefficients are taken from a resonance approach. The decoupling of the charm quarks from the hot medium is performed at a temperature of 130MeV and as hadronization mechanism a coalescence approach is chosen. This model for charm quark interactions with the medium has already been successfully applied to the study of the medium modification and the elliptic flow at FAIR, RHIC and LHC energies. In this proceeding we present our results for the dilepton radiation from correlated D¯D decays at RHIC energy in comparison to PHENIX measurements in the invariant mass range between 1 and 3 GeV using different interaction scenarios. These results can be utilized to estimate the thermal QGP radiation.

- Hadronic freeze-out in A+A collisions meets the lattice QCD parton-hadron transition line (2013)
- We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. Employing the UrQMD hybrid transport model we study the effects of the final hadron/resonance expansion phase on the hadron multiplicities established at hadronization. The bulk meson yields freeze out directly at hadronization whereas the baryon-antibaryon sector is subject to significant alterations, due to annihilation and regeneration processes. We quantify the latter changes by survival factors for each species which are applied to modify the statistical model predictions for the data. The modified SM analysis recovers the hadronization points, which coincide with the recent lattice QCD predictions of the parton-hadron transition line at finite baryochemical potential.

- Hadronization, chemical equilibrium and chemical freeze-out (2013)
- Recent results on baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions show that a revision of the chemical freeze-out conditions is necessary. Particularly, there is evidence that chemical freezeout does not occur at full chemical equilibrium. We present a method to reconstruct original hadronization conditions and show that the newly found points in the T − µB plane are in very good agreement with extrapolations of the lattice QCD critical line.

- The enhancement of v4 in nuclear collisions at the highest densities signals a first-order phase transition (2018)
- The beam energy dependence of v4 (the quadrupole moment of the transverse radial flow) is sensitive to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) in mid-central Au + Au collisions at the energy range of 3<sNN−−−−√<30 GeV, which is investigated within the hadronic transport model JAM. Different equations of state, namely, a free hadron gas, a first-order phase transition and a crossover are compared. An enhancement of v4 at sNN−−−−√≈6 GeV is predicted for an EoS with a first-order phase transition. This enhanced v4 flow is driven by both the enhancement of v2 as well as the positive contribution to v4 from the squeeze-out of spectator particles which turn into participants due to the admixture of the strong collective flow in the shocked, compressed nuclear matter.

- Equation of state dependence of directed flow in a microscopic transport model (2017)
- We study the sensitivities of the directed flow in Au+Au collisions on the equation of state (EoS), employing the transport theoretical model JAM. The EoS is modified by introducing a new collision term in order to control the pressure of a system by appropriately selecting an azimuthal angle in two-body collisions according to a given EoS. It is shown that this approach is an efficient method to modify the EoS in a transport model. The beam energy dependence of the directed flow of protons is examined with two different EoS, a first-order phase transition and crossover. It is found that our approach yields quite similar results as hydrodynamical predictions on the beam energy dependence of the directed flow; Transport theory predicts a minimum in the excitation function of the slope of proton directed flow and does indeed yield negative directed flow, if the EoS with a first-order phase transition is employed. Our result strongly suggests that the highest sensitivity for the critical point can be seen in the beam energy range of 4.7 ≤√sNN≤11.5GeV.

- Phase structure of strongly interacting matter and simulations of heavy-ion collisions using a quark-hadron model (2010)
- Abstract We consider the phase structure of hadronic and hadron-quark models at finite temperature and density. The basis for the hadronic part is an extension of a flavor-SU(3) ? ? ? model. We study the effect on the phase diagram by adding additional hadronic resonances to the model. With the resulting equation of state we investigate heavy-ion c... collisions using hydrodynamical simulations. In a combined approach we include quarks and the Polyakov loop field in the calculation and study chiral symmetry restoration and the deconfinement transition.

- QCD equation of state from a chiral hadronic model including quark degrees of freedom (2013)
- This work presents an effective model for strongly interacting matter and the QCD equation of state (EoS). The model includes both hadron and quark degrees of freedom and takes into account the transition of chiral symmetry restoration as well as the deconfinement phase transition. At low temperatures T and baryonic densities ρB a hadron resonance gas is described using a SU(3)-flavor sigma-omega model and a quark phase is introduced in analogy to PNJL models for higher T and ρB. In this way, the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom are used in a wide range of T and ρB. Here, results of this model concerning the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions and thermodynamic model properties are presented. Large hadron resonance multiplicities in the transition region emphasize the importance of heavy-mass resonance states in this region and their impact on the chiral transition behavior. The resulting phase diagram of QCD matter at small chemical potentials is in line with latest lattice QCD and thermal model results.