- Is BEST really better? : Internalization of orders in an open limit order book (2011)
- This paper studies the market quality of an internalization system which is designed as part of an open limit order book (the Xetra system operated by Deutsche Börse AG). The internalization sys-tem (Xetra BEST) guarantees a price improvement over the inside spread in the Xetra order book. We develop a structural model of this unique dual market environment and show that, while adverse selection costs of internalized trades are significantly lower than those of regular order book trades, the realized spreads (the revenue earned by the suppliers of liquidity) is significantly larger. The cost savings of the internalizer are larger than the mandatory price improvement. This suggests that internalization can be profitable both for the customer and the internalizer. JEL Classification: G10 Keywords: Internalization , Execution Quality , Adverse Selection Costs
- Labour supply under demand side constraints in the USA and the FRG : a comparative analysis using PSID and GSOEP data (1999)
- This paper provides an empirical assessment of hypotheses that identify causes of demand side constraints of individual labour supply. In a comparative study for the USA and the FRG we focus on analysing the effect of productivity gaps (industry wage growth beyond productivity growth), industry investment intensity and regional labour market conditions on individual employment probabilities. Furthermore, we investigate whether demand side constraints of labour supply can be caused by a spill over from commodity markets. Efficiency wage theory and the theory of inter-industry wage differentials are utilised to derive identifying restrictions that are applicable to the labour supply models for both countries. The econometric contribution of the paper is the derivation and application of a two step estimation method for the class of simultaneous random effects double hurdle models, of which the labour supply model employed in this paper is a special case. To provide the empirical basis for the comparative study, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the German Socio-Economic Panel are linked to the OECD’s International Sectoral Database. JEL classification: C33, C34, J64, O57
- Modelling consumer behaviour in a profile design using a three equation generalised Tobit model (1997)
- We propose the application of a three equation generalised Tobit to model different aspects of consumer behaviour in a full profile study design. The model takes into account that consumer behaviour can be measured by preference scores, purchase probability and purchase volume. We aim to avoid the drawbacks of traditional conjoint analysis where the latter two aspects are disregarded. Starting from a full profile design, we develop the appropriate questionnaire layout, the econometric model, the likelihood function and tests. The model is applied in a market entry study for an innovative medicament after a reform of Germany´s public health system in 1993-1994. JEL Classification: C35,M31,L65
- Internationally cross-listed stock prices during overlapping trading hours : price discovery and exchange rate effects (2001)
- We analyze exchange rates along with equity quotes for 3 German firms from New York (NYSE) and Frankfurt (XETRA) during overlapping trading hours to see where price discovery occurs and how stock prices adjust to an exchange rate shock. Findings include: (a) the exchange rate is exogenous with respect to the stock prices; (b) exchange rate innovations are more important in understanding the evolution of NYSE prices than XETRA prices; and (c) most (but not all) of the fundamental or random walk component of firm value is determined in Frankfurt.