- Labour supply under demand side constraints in the USA and the FRG : a comparative analysis using PSID and GSOEP data (1999)
- This paper provides an empirical assessment of hypotheses that identify causes of demand side constraints of individual labour supply. In a comparative study for the USA and the FRG we focus on analysing the effect of productivity gaps (industry wage growth beyond productivity growth), industry investment intensity and regional labour market conditions on individual employment probabilities. Furthermore, we investigate whether demand side constraints of labour supply can be caused by a spill over from commodity markets. Efficiency wage theory and the theory of inter-industry wage differentials are utilised to derive identifying restrictions that are applicable to the labour supply models for both countries. The econometric contribution of the paper is the derivation and application of a two step estimation method for the class of simultaneous random effects double hurdle models, of which the labour supply model employed in this paper is a special case. To provide the empirical basis for the comparative study, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the German Socio-Economic Panel are linked to the OECD’s International Sectoral Database. JEL classification: C33, C34, J64, O57
- Modelling consumer behaviour in a profile design using a three equation generalised Tobit model (1997)
- We propose the application of a three equation generalised Tobit to model different aspects of consumer behaviour in a full profile study design. The model takes into account that consumer behaviour can be measured by preference scores, purchase probability and purchase volume. We aim to avoid the drawbacks of traditional conjoint analysis where the latter two aspects are disregarded. Starting from a full profile design, we develop the appropriate questionnaire layout, the econometric model, the likelihood function and tests. The model is applied in a market entry study for an innovative medicament after a reform of Germany´s public health system in 1993-1994. JEL Classification: C35,M31,L65
- Internationally cross-listed stock prices during overlapping trading hours : price discovery and exchange rate effects (2001)
- We analyze exchange rates along with equity quotes for 3 German firms from New York (NYSE) and Frankfurt (XETRA) during overlapping trading hours to see where price discovery occurs and how stock prices adjust to an exchange rate shock. Findings include: (a) the exchange rate is exogenous with respect to the stock prices; (b) exchange rate innovations are more important in understanding the evolution of NYSE prices than XETRA prices; and (c) most (but not all) of the fundamental or random walk component of firm value is determined in Frankfurt.
- Ökonometrische Modellierung von Transaktionsintensitäten auf Finanzmärkten : eine Anwendung von Autoregressive-conditional-duration-Modellen auf die IPO der Deutschen Telekom (1998)
- Give me strong moments and time: combining GMM and SMM to estimate long-run risk asset pricing models (2014)
- The long-run consumption risk (LRR) model is a promising approach to resolve prominent asset pricing puzzles. The simulated method of moments (SMM) provides a natural framework to estimate its deep parameters, but caveats concern model solubility and weak identification. We propose a two-step estimation strategy that combines GMM and SMM, and for which we elicit informative macroeconomic and financial moment matches from the LRR model structure. In particular, we exploit the persistent serial correlation of consumption and dividend growth and the equilibrium conditions for market return and risk-free rate, as well as the model-implied predictability of the risk-free rate. We match analytical moments when possible and simulated moments when necessary and determine the crucial factors required for both identification and reasonable estimation precision. A simulation study – the first in the context of long-run risk modeling – delineates the pitfalls associated with SMM estimation of a non-linear dynamic asset pricing model. Our study provides a blueprint for successful estimation of the LRR model.
- Consumption-based asset pricing with rare disaster risk : a simulated method of moments approach (2014)
- The rare disaster hypothesis suggests that the extraordinarily high postwar U.S. equity premium resulted because investors ex ante demanded compensation for unlikely but calamitous risks that they happened not to incur. Although convincing in theory, empirical tests of the rare disaster explanation are scarce. We estimate a disaster-including consumption-based asset pricing model (CBM) using a combination of the simulated method of moments and bootstrapping. We consider several methodological alternatives that differ in the moment matches and the way to account for disasters in the simulated consumption growth and return series. Whichever specification is used, the estimated preference parameters are of an economically plausible size, and the estimation precision is much higher than in previous studies that use the canonical CBM. Our results thus provide empirical support for the rare disaster hypothesis, and help reconcile the nexus between real economy and financial markets implied by the consumption-based asset pricing paradigm.