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- Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory of medium energy heavy ion reactions: role of mean field dynamics and two body collisions (1985)
- The role of nonequilibrium and quantal effects in fast nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied via the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory which includes the nuclear mean field dynamics, two-body collisions, and Pauli blocking. The intranuclear cascade model, where the dynamics is governed by independent NN collisions, and the Vlasov equation, where the nuclear mean field determines the collision dynamics, are also studied as reference cases. The Vlasov equation (no collision term) yields single particle distribution functions which–after the reaction–are only slightly modified in momentum space; even in central collisions, transparency is predicted. This is in agreement with the predictions of the quantal time-dependent Hartree-Fock method. In contrast, large momentum transfer is obtained when the Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term is incorporated; then the final momentum distribution is nearly spherically symmetric in the center of mass and a well-equilibrated nuclear system is formed: the nuclei stop each other; the translational kinetic energy is transformed into randomized microscopic motion. The Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory is supplemented with a phase space coalescence model of fragment formation. Calculated proton spectra compare well with recent data for Ar(42, 92, and 137 MeV/nucleon) + Ca. Also the total yields of medium mass fragments are well reproduced in the present approach. The mean field dynamics without two-body collisions, on the other hand, exhibits forward peaked proton distributions, in contrast to the data. The cascade approach underpredicts the yields of low energy protons by more than an order of magnitude.

- Further evidence for a stiff nuclear equation of state from a transverse-momentum analysis of Ar(1800 MeV/nucleon) + KCl (1986)
- The novel momentum analysis technique introduced by Danielewicz and Odyniec can be used to detect and exhibit collective flow in the light system Ar(1800 MeV/nucleon) + KCl where the usual kinetic energy flow analysis fails. The microscopic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory which includes the nuclear mean field, two-body collisions, and Pauli blocking is used to study this phenomenon. The resulting transverse momentum transfers turn out to be quite sensitive to the nuclear equation of state. From a comparison with experimental data, evidence is presented for a rather stiff nuclear equation of state. The cascade model is unable to describe the data.

- Microscopic calculations of collective flow probing the short-range nature of the nuclear force (1984)
- Collisions between two nuclei have been modeled by numerical solution of classical approximations to the equations of motion of the constituent nucleons. For the reaction Nb(400 MeV/u)+Nb, a correlated sidewards emission of nucleons is observed. This is attributed to the repulsive short-range component of the nucleon-nucleon potential. A strong dependence of the flow angle on the impact parameter is observed, in accord with recent experimental results.

- Time dependent dirac equation with relativistic mean field dynamics applied to heavy ion scattering (1986)
- We treat the relativistic propagation of nucleons coupled to scalar- and vector-meson fields in a mean-field approximation. The time-dependent Dirac and mean-meson-field equations are solved numerically in three dimensions. Collisions of 16O(300, 600, and 1200 MeV/nucleon) + 16O are studied for various impact parameters. The results are compared to other recent theoretical approaches. The calculations predict spallation, large transverse-momentum transfer, and positive-angle sidewards flow, in qualitative agreement with the data in this energy regime.

- Intranuclear cascade models lack dynamic flow (1986)
- We study the recent claim that the intranuclear cascade model exhibits collective sidewards flow. 4000 intranuclear cascade simulations of the reaction Nb(400 MeV/nucleon)+Nb are performed employing bound and unbound versions of the Cugnon cascade. We show that instability of the target and projectile nuclei in the unbound cascade produces substantial spurious sidewards flow angles, for spectators as well as for participants. Once the nuclear binding is included, the peak of the flow angle distributions for the participants alone is reduced from 35° to 17°. The theoretical ‘‘data’’ are subjected to the experimental multiplicity and efficiency cuts of the plastic ball 4π electronic spectrometer system. The flow angular distributions obtained from the bound cascade—with spectators and participants subjected to the plastic ball filter—are forward peaked, in contrast to the plastic ball data. We discuss the uncertainties encountered with the application of the experimental efficiency and multiplicity filter. The influence of the Pauli principle on the flow is also discussed. The lack of flow effects in the cascade model clearly reflects the absence of the nuclear compression energy that can cause substantially larger collective sidewards motion—there is too little intrinsic pressure built up in the cascade model.

- Evolution of 4 pi observables in the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory and the transverse momentum transfer as a barometer for hadronic matter (1987)
- We study the dynamics of high energy heavy ion collisions through the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach. Equilibration is observed, for central collisions. It is shown that the produced entropy, the pion multiplicity, flow angle, and transverse momentum distributions saturate at the moment of maximum compression and temperature. The effects of the nuclear equation of state and the Pauli principle are investigated. For the flow angle distribution there is a 20 deg reduction of the peak flow angle due to the Pauli principle. A stiff equation of state results in a 10–20 deg increase over the soft equation of state at all energies. The transverse momentum at projectile rapidity exhibits a peak structure as a function of impact parameter b. A 40% difference between soft and hard equation of state is observed for the peak impact parameter, i.e., for intermediate multiplicities.

- Mean field effects in hot compressed nuclear matter (1988)
- We study effects of the mean field in hot compressed nuclear matter in the context of the Vlasov Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory. The expansion of a spherical distribution at different temperatures is studied along with collisions of Nb+Nb and Au+Au at lab energies from 50 to 1050 MeV/nucleon. In both the expansion and the actual heavy ion collision simulation, a transition behavior is seen only at the lowest temperature (T<10 MeV) or bombarding energy (E=50 MeV/nucleon), where the attractive part of the mean field is able to bind the expanding matter. At the lowest energy one thus sees the formation of a central residue, whereas at higher bombarding energies there is complete disintegration of the centrally colliding nuclei. The spectrum of emitted nucleons is found to be much hotter than the kinetic energy spectrum of the central emitting region. The extracted temperature slope parameters are in agreement with recent data.

- Comparison of Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model with 4 π Heavy Ion Data (1988)
- Streamer chamber data for collisions of Ar + KCl and Ar + BaI2 at 1.2 GeV/nucleon are compared with microscopic model predictions based on the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, for various density-dependent nuclear equations of state. Multiplicity distributions and inclusive rapidity and transverse momentum spectra are in good agreement. Rapidity spectra show evidence of being useful in determining whether the model uses the correct cross sections for binary collisions in the nuclear medium, and whether momentum-dependent interactions are correctly incorporated. Sideward flow results do not favor the same nuclear stiffness parameter at all multiplicities.