- CXCL16 and oxLDL are induced in the onset of diabetic nephropathy (2009)
- Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Oxidative stress has been reported to be a major culprit of the disease and increased oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) immune complexes were found in patients with DN. In this study we present evidence, that CXCL16 is the main receptor in human podocytes mediating the uptake of oxLDL. In contrast, in primary tubular cells CD36 was mainly involved in the uptake of oxLDL. We further demonstrate that oxLDL down-regulated α3-integrin expression and increased the production of fibronectin in human podocytes. In addition, oxLDL uptake induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human podocytes. Inhibition of oxLDL uptake by CXCL16 blocking antibodies abrogated the fibronectin and ROS production and restored α3 integrin expression in human podocytes. Furthermore we present evidence that hyperglycaemic conditions increased CXCL16 and reduced ADAM10 expression in podocytes. Importantly, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice an early induction of CXCL16 was accompanied by higher levels of oxLDL. Finally immunofluorescence analysis in biopsies of patients with DN revealed increased glomerular CXCL16 expression, which was paralleled by high levels of oxLDL. In summary, regulation of CXCL16, ADAM10 and oxLDL expression may be an early event in the onset of DN and therefore all three proteins may represent potential new targets for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in DN.
- Inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase promotes albuminuria in mice with progressive renal disease (2010)
- Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF). We determined whether sEH inhibition attenuates the progression of CRF in the 5/6-nephrectomy model (5/6-Nx) in mice. 5/6-Nx mice were treated with a placebo, an ACE-inhibitor (Ramipril, 40 mg/kg), the sEH-inhibitor cAUCB or the CYP-inhibitor fenbendazole for 8 weeks. 5/6-Nx induced hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial damage and these effects were attenuated by Ramipril. In contrast, cAUCB failed to lower the blood pressure and albuminuria was more severe as compared to placebo. Plasma EET-levels were doubled in 5/6 Nx-mice as compared to sham mice receiving placebo. Renal sEH expression was attenuated in 5/6-Nx mice but cAUCB in these animals still further increased the EET-level. cAUCB also increased 5-HETE and 15-HETE, which derive from peroxidation or lipoxygenases. Similar to cAUCB, CYP450 inhibition increased HETEs and promoted albuminuria. Thus, sEH-inhibition failed to elicit protective effects in the 5/6-Nx model and showed a tendency to aggravate the disease. These effects might be consequence of a shift of arachidonic acid metabolism into the lipoxygenase pathway.