Year of publication
- 2011 (2) (remove)
- SKAP1 protein PH domain determines RapL membrane localization and Rap1 protein complex formation for T cell receptor (TCR) activation of LFA-1 (2011)
- Although essential for T cell function, the identity of the T cell receptor (TCR) “inside-out” pathway for the activation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is unclear. SKAP1 (SKAP-55) is the upstream regulator needed for TCR-induced RapL-Rap1 complex formation and LFA-1 activation. In this paper, we show that SKAP1 is needed for RapL binding to membranes in a manner dependent on the PH domain of SKAP1 and the PI3K pathway. A SKAP1 PH domain-inactivating mutation (i.e. R131M) markedly impaired RapL translocation to membranes for Rap1 and LFA-1 binding and the up-regulation of LFA-1-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) binding. Further, N-terminal myr-tagged SKAP1 for membrane binding facilitated constitutive RapL membrane and Rap1 binding and effectively substituted for PI3K and TCR ligation in the activation of LFA-1 in T cells.
- Toxicity modelling of Plk1-targeted therapies in genetically engineered mice and cultured primary mammalian cells (2011)
- High attrition rates of novel anti-cancer drugs highlight the need for improved models to predict toxicity. Although polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitors are attractive candidates for drug development, the role of Plk1 in primary cells remains widely unexplored. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of an RNA interference-based model to assess responses to an inducible knockdown (iKD) of Plk1 in adult mice. Here we show that Plk1 silencing can be achieved in several organs, although adverse events are rare. We compared responses in Plk1-iKD mice with those in primary cells kept under controlled culture conditions. In contrast to the addiction of many cancer cell lines to the non-oncogene Plk1, the primary cells' proliferation, spindle assembly and apoptosis exhibit only a low dependency on Plk1. Responses to Plk1-depletion, both in cultured primary cells and in our iKD-mouse model, correspond well and thus provide the basis for using validated iKD mice in predicting responses to therapeutic interventions.