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#### Keywords

- freeze out (2)
- nuclear reactions (2)
- nuclear reactions (2)
- particle spectra (2)
- viscosity (2)
- 20Ne + 238U (1)
- Ar + Pb (800 MeV/nucleon) relativistic heavy-ion reactions (1)
- Ar+Ca (1)
- Ausfrieren (1)
- Bjorken Modell (1)

#### Institute

- Importance of nuclear viscosity and thermal conductivity and the analysis of the bounce-off effect in high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- We present an analysis of high energy heavy ion collisions at intermediate impact parameters, using a two-dimensional fluid-dynamical model including shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, a realistic treatment of the nuclear binding, and an analysis of the final thermal emission of free nucleons. We find large collective momentum transfer to projectile and target residues (the highly inelastic bounce-off effect) and explosion of the hot compressed shock zones formed during the impact. As the calculated azimuthal dependence of energy spectra and angular distributions of emitted nucleons depends strongly on the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity, future exclusive measurements may allow for an experimental determination of these transport coefficients. The importance of 4π measurements with full azimuthal information is pointed out.

- Three-component fluid dynamics for the description of energetic heavy-ion reactions (1982)
- The nucleons taking part in heavy ion reaction are considered as a three-component fluid. The first and second components correspond to the nucleons of the target and the projectile, while the thermalized nucleons produced in the course of the collision belong to the third component. Making use of the Boltzmann equation, hydrodynamical equations are derived. An equation of state for anisotropic nuclear matter obtained from a field theoretical model in mean field approximation is applied in a one dimensional version of the three-component fluid model. The speed of thermalization is analyzed and compared to the results of cascade and kinetic models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy-ion reactions, hydrodynamic description.

- Direct nucleonemission from hot and dense regions described in the hydrodynamical model of relativistic heavy ion collisions (1982)
- The collision process is described by hydrodynamical equations. The escape of nucleons which do not take part in the thermal equilibrium is considered by including drain terms in these equations. The energy spectra of the escaped nucleons and of nucleons evaporated after the breakup of the fluid are compared. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy ion reactions, nuclear hydrodynamics, nucleon spectra.

- Comment on "Exactly central heavy-ion collisions by nuclear hydrodynamics" (1981)
- Problems arising in viscous nuclear fluid dynamical models of high-energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The importance of an accurate treatment of the transport properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter is pointed out.

- Macroscopic nucleon-nucleon correlations caused by the bounce-off process in energetic collisions of heavy nuclei (1981)
- Two-particle correlation data are presented for the reaction Ar (800 MeV/ nucleon) + Pb. The experimental results are analyzed in the nuclear fluid dynamical and in a linear cascade model. We demonstrate that the collective hydrodynamical correlations dominate the measured two-particle correlation function for the heavy system studied. We discuss the transition from the early stages of the reaction which are governed by few nucleon correlations, to the later stages with their macroscopic flow which can only be reached using heavy colliding systems. The sensitivity of the correlation data on the underlying compressional dissipative processes is analyzed.

- Jets of nuclear matter from high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- The fluid dynamical model is used to study the reactions 20Ne+238U and 40Ar+40Ca at Elab=390 MeV/nucleon. The calculated double differential cross sections d²ð/dΩdE exhibit sidewards maxima in agreement with recent experimental data. The azimuthal dependence of the triple differential distributions, to be obtained from an event-by-event analysis of 4π; exclusive experiments, can yield deeper insight into the collision process: Jets of nuclear matter are predicted with a strongly impact-parameter-dependent thrust angle θjet(b). NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ar+Ca, Ne+U, Elab=393 MeV/nucleon, fluid dynamics with thermal breakup, double differential cross sections, azimuthal dependence of triple differential cross sections, event-by-event thrust analysis of 4π exclusive experiments.

- Fragment emission in high-energy heavy-ion reactions (1983)
- We present a theoretical description of nuclear collisions which consists of a three-dimensional fluid-dynamical model, a chemical equilibrium breakup calculation for local light fragment (i.e., p, n, d, t, 3He, and 4He) production, and a final thermal evaporation of these particles. The light fragment cross sections and some properties of the heavy target residues are calculated for the asymmetric system Ne+U at 400 MeV/N. The results of the model calculations are compared with recent experimental data. Several observable signatures of the collective hydrodynamical processes are consistent with the present data. An event-by-event analysis of the flow patterns of the various clusters is proposed which can yield deeper insight into the collision dynamics.

- Quantitative analysis of the relation between entropy and nucleosynthesis in central Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb collisions (1987)
- The final states of central Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb collisions at 400 and 1050 MeV/nucleon and at 400 and 650 MeV/nucleon, respectively, are studied with two independently developed statistical models, namely the classical microcanonical model and the quantum-statistical grand canonical model. It is shown that these models are in agreement with each other for these systems. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that there is essentially a one-to-one relationship between the observed relative abundances of the light fragments p, d, t, 3He, and α and the entropy per nucleon, for breakup temperatures greater than 30 MeV. Entropy values of 3.5–4 are deduced from high-multiplicity selected fragment yield data.

- Non-ideal particle distributions from kinetic freeze out models (1998)
- In fluid dynamical models the freeze out of particles across a three dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with both space-like and time-like normals, taking into account conservation laws across the freeze out discontinuity.

- Freeze out in hydrodynamical models (1999)
- We study the effects of strict conservation laws and the problem of negative contributions to final momentum distribution during the freeze out through 3-dimensional hypersurfaces with space-like normal. We study some suggested solutions for this problem, and demonstrate it on one example. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q