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#### Keywords

- nuclear reactions (4)
- freeze out (2)
- nuclear hydrodynamics (2)
- particle spectra (2)
- 20Ne + 238U (1)
- Ar + Pb (800 MeV/nucleon) relativistic heavy-ion reactions (1)
- Ar+Ca (1)
- Ausfrieren (1)
- Bjorken Modell (1)
- Bjorken model (1)

#### Institute

- Comment on "Exactly central heavy-ion collisions by nuclear hydrodynamics" (1981)
- Problems arising in viscous nuclear fluid dynamical models of high-energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The importance of an accurate treatment of the transport properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter is pointed out.

- Direct nucleonemission from hot and dense regions described in the hydrodynamical model of relativistic heavy ion collisions (1982)
- The collision process is described by hydrodynamical equations. The escape of nucleons which do not take part in the thermal equilibrium is considered by including drain terms in these equations. The energy spectra of the escaped nucleons and of nucleons evaporated after the breakup of the fluid are compared. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy ion reactions, nuclear hydrodynamics, nucleon spectra.

- Fragment emission in high-energy heavy-ion reactions (1983)
- We present a theoretical description of nuclear collisions which consists of a three-dimensional fluid-dynamical model, a chemical equilibrium breakup calculation for local light fragment (i.e., p, n, d, t, 3He, and 4He) production, and a final thermal evaporation of these particles. The light fragment cross sections and some properties of the heavy target residues are calculated for the asymmetric system Ne+U at 400 MeV/N. The results of the model calculations are compared with recent experimental data. Several observable signatures of the collective hydrodynamical processes are consistent with the present data. An event-by-event analysis of the flow patterns of the various clusters is proposed which can yield deeper insight into the collision dynamics.

- Freeze out in hydrodynamical models (1999)
- We study the effects of strict conservation laws and the problem of negative contributions to final momentum distribution during the freeze out through 3-dimensional hypersurfaces with space-like normal. We study some suggested solutions for this problem, and demonstrate it on one example. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q

- Freeze-out in hydrodynamical models in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1999)
- In continuum and fluid dynamical models, particles, which leave the system and reach the detectors, can be taken into account via freeze-out (FO) or final break-up schemes, where the frozen out particles are formed on a 3-dimensional hypersurface in space-time. Such FO descriptions are important ingredients of evaluations of two-particle correlation data, transverse-, longitudinal-, radial- and cylindrical- flow analyses, transverse momentum and transverse mass spectra and many other observables. The FO on a hypersurface is a discontinuity, where the pre FO equilibrated and interacting matter abruptly changes to non-interacting particles, showing an ideal gas type of behavior.

- Importance of nuclear viscosity and thermal conductivity and the analysis of the bounce-off effect in high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- We present an analysis of high energy heavy ion collisions at intermediate impact parameters, using a two-dimensional fluid-dynamical model including shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, a realistic treatment of the nuclear binding, and an analysis of the final thermal emission of free nucleons. We find large collective momentum transfer to projectile and target residues (the highly inelastic bounce-off effect) and explosion of the hot compressed shock zones formed during the impact. As the calculated azimuthal dependence of energy spectra and angular distributions of emitted nucleons depends strongly on the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity, future exclusive measurements may allow for an experimental determination of these transport coefficients. The importance of 4π measurements with full azimuthal information is pointed out.

- Jets of nuclear matter from high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- The fluid dynamical model is used to study the reactions 20Ne+238U and 40Ar+40Ca at Elab=390 MeV/nucleon. The calculated double differential cross sections d2σ/dΩdE exhibit sidewards maxima in agreement with recent experimental data. The azimuthal dependence of the triple differential distributions, to be obtained from an event-by-event analysis of 4π exclusive experiments, can yield deeper insight into the collision process: Jets of nuclear matter are predicted with a strongly impact-parameter-dependent thrust angle θjet(b). NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ar+Ca, Ne+U, Elab=393 MeV/nucleon, fluid dynamics with thermal breakup, double differential cross sections, azimuthal dependence of triple differential cross sections, event-by-event thrust analysis of 4π exclusive experiments.

- Kinetic freeze out models (1999)
- Freeze out of particles across a space-time hypersurface is discussed in kinetic models. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with spacelike normals. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution does not resemble, the previously proposed, cut Jüttner distribution, and shows non-exponential pt-spectra similar to the ones observed in experiments. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q

- Large p(t) enhancement from freeze out (1999)
- Freeze out of particles across three dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed in a simple kinetic model. The final momentum distribution of emitted particles, for freeze out surfaces with space-like normal, shows a non-exponential transverse momentum spectrum. The slope parameter of the pt distribution increases with increasing pt, in agreement with recently measured SPS pion and h spectra.

- Macroscopic nucleon-nucleon correlations caused by the bounce-off process in energetic collisions of heavy nuclei (1981)
- Two-particle correlation data are presented for the reaction Ar (800 MeV/ nucleon) + Pb. The experimental results are analyzed in the nuclear fluid dynamical and in a linear cascade model. We demonstrate that the collective hydrodynamical correlations dominate the measured two-particle correlation function for the heavy system studied. We discuss the transition from the early stages of the reaction which are governed by few nucleon correlations, to the later stages with their macroscopic flow which can only be reached using heavy colliding systems. The sensitivity of the correlation data on the underlying compressional dissipative processes is analyzed.