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- Multicomponent Tree Adjoining Grammar (8)
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- Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (6)
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- Semantik (4)
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- A descriptive characterization of multicomponent tree adjoining grammars (2005)
- Multicomponent Tree Adjoining Grammars (MCTAG) is a formalism that has been shown to be useful for many natural language applications. The definition of MCTAG however is problematic since it refers to the process of the derivation itself: a simultaneity constraint must be respected concerning the way the members of the elementary tree sets are added. Looking only at the result of a derivation (i.e., the derived tree and the derivation tree), this simultaneity is no longer visible and therefore cannot be checked. I.e., this way of characterizing MCTAG does not allow to abstract away from the concrete order of derivation. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an alternative definition of MCTAG that characterizes the trees in the tree language of an MCTAG via the properties of the derivation trees the MCTAG licences.

- A polynomial-time parsing algorithm for TT-MCTAG (2009)
- This paper investigates the class of Tree-Tuple MCTAG with Shared Nodes, TT-MCTAG for short, an extension of Tree Adjoining Grammars that has been proposed for natural language processing, in particular for dealing with discontinuities and word order variation in languages such as German. It has been shown that the universal recognition problem for this formalism is NP-hard, but so far it was not known whether the class of languages generated by TT-MCTAG is included in PTIME. We provide a positive answer to this question, using a new characterization of TT-MCTAG.

- An earley parsing algorithm for range concatenation grammars (2009)
- We present a CYK and an Earley-style algorithm for parsing Range Concatenation Grammar (RCG), using the deductive parsing framework. The characteristic property of the Earley parser is that we use a technique of range boundary constraint propagation to compute the yields of non-terminals as late as possible. Experiments show that, compared to previous approaches, the constraint propagation helps to considerably decrease the number of items in the chart.

- A declarative characterization of different types of multicomponent tree adjoining grammars (2009)
- Multicomponent Tree Adjoining Grammars (MCTAGs) are a formalism that has been shown to be useful for many natural language applications. The definition of non-local MCTAG however is problematic since it refers to the process of the derivation itself: a simultaneity constraint must be respected concerning the way the members of the elementary tree sets are added. Looking only at the result of a derivation (i.e., the derived tree and the derivation tree), this simultaneity is no longer visible and therefore cannot be checked. I.e., this way of characterizing MCTAG does not allow to abstract away from the concrete order of derivation. In this paper, we propose an alternative definition of MCTAG that characterizes the trees in the tree language of an MCTAG via the properties of the derivation trees (in the underlying TAG) the MCTAG licences. We provide similar characterizations for various types of MCTAG. These characterizations give a better understanding of the formalisms, they allow a more systematic comparison of different types of MCTAG, and, furthermore, they can be exploited for parsing.

- Un algorithme d'analyse de type earley pour grammaires à concaténation d'intervalles (2009)
- Nous présentons ici différents algorithmes d’analyse pour grammaires à concaténation d’intervalles (Range Concatenation Grammar, RCG), dont un nouvel algorithme de type Earley, dans le paradigme de l’analyse déductive. Notre travail est motivé par l’intérêt porté récemment à ce type de grammaire, et comble un manque dans la littérature existante.

- Local tree description grammars (1997)
- A lot of interest has recently been paid to constraint-based definitions and extensions of Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAG). Examples are the so-called quasi-trees, D-Tree Grammars and Tree Description Grammars. The latter are grammars consisting of a set of formulars denoting trees. TDGs are derivation based where in each derivation step a conjunction is built of the old formular, a formular of the grammar and additional equivalences between node names of the two formulars. This formalism is more powerfull than TAGs. TDGs offer the advantages of MC-TAG and D-Tree Grammars for natural languages and they allow underspecification. However the problem is that TDGs might be unnecessarily powerfull for natural languages. To solve this problem, in this paper, I will propose a local TDGs, a restricted version of TDGs. Local TDGs still have the advantages of TDGs but they are semilinear and therefore more appropriate for natural languages. First, the notion of the semilinearity is defined. Then local TDGs are introduced, and, finally, semilinearity of local Tree Description Languages is proven.

- Factoring predicate argument and scope semantics : underspecified semantics with LTAG (1999)
- This paper proposes a compositional semantics for lexicalized tree adjoining grammars (LTAG). Tree-local multicompnent derivations allow seperation of semantiv contribution of a lexical item into one component contributing to the predicate argument structure and second a component contributing to scope semantics. Based on this idea a syntx-semantics interface is presented where the compositional semantics depends only on the derivation structure. It is shown that the derivation structure allows an appropriate amount of underspecification. This is illustrated by investigating underspecified representations for quantifier scpoe ambiguities and related phenomena such as adjunct scope and island constraints.

- A hierarchy of local TDGs (1998)
- Many recent variants of Tree Adoining Grammars (TAG) allow an underspecifiaction of the parent relation between nodes in a tree, i.e. they do not deal with fully specified trees as it is the case with TAGs.Such TAG variants are for example Description Tree Grammars (DTG), Unordered Vector Grammars with Dominance Links (UVG-DL), a definition of TAGs via so-called quasi trees and Tree Description Grammars (TDG. The last TAg variant, local TDG, is an extension of TAG generating Tree Descriptions. Local TDGs even allow an underspecification of the dominance relation between node names and thereby provide the possibility to generate underspecified representations for structural ambiguities such as quantifier scope ambiguities. This abstract deals with formal properties of local TDGs. A hierarchiy of local TDGs is established together with a pumping lemma for local TDGs of a certain rank.

- Tree-local MCTAG with shared nodes : an analysis of word order variation in German and Korean (2004)
- Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAG) are known not to be powerful enough to deal with scrambling in free word order languages. The TAG-variants proposed so far in order to account for scrambling are not entirely satisfying. Therefore, an alternative extension of TAG is introduced based on the notion of node sharing. Considering data from German and Korean, it is shown that this TAG-extension can adequately analyse scrambling data, also in combination with extraposition and topicalization.

- TuLiPA : towards a multi-formalism parsing environment for grammar engineering (2008)
- In this paper, we present an open-source parsing environment (Tübingen Linguistic Parsing Architecture, TuLiPA) which uses Range Concatenation Grammar (RCG) as a pivot formalism, thus opening the way to the parsing of several mildly context-sensitive formalisms. This environment currently supports tree-based grammars (namely Tree-Adjoining Grammars (TAG) and Multi-Component Tree-Adjoining Grammars with Tree Tuples (TT-MCTAG)) and allows computation not only of syntactic structures, but also of the corresponding semantic representations. It is used for the development of a tree-based grammar for German.