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- Kollisionen schwerer Ionen (4)
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- Dilepton production by bremsstrahlung of meson fields in nuclear collisions (1997)
- We study the bremsstrahlung of virtual omega mesons due to the collective deceleration of nuclei at the initial stage of an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision. It is shown that electromagnetic decays of these mesons may give an important contribution to the observed yields of dileptons. Mass spectra of e+e and µ+µ pairs produced in central Au+Au collisions are calculated under some simplifying assumptions on the space time variation of the baryonic current in a nuclear collision process. Comparison with the CERES data for 160 AGev Pb+Au collisions shows that the proposed mechanism gives a noticeable fraction of the observed e+e pairs in the intermediate region of invariant masses. Sensi tivity of the dilepton yield to the in medium modification of masses and widths of vector mesons is demonstrated.

- Collective mechanism of dilepton production in high-energy nuclear collisions. (1997)
- Collective bremsstrahlung of vector meson fields in relativistic nuclear collisions is studied within the time dependent Walecka model. Mutual deceleration of the colliding nuclei is described by introducing the e ective stopping time and average rapidity loss of baryons. It is shown that electromagnetic decays of virtual ω mesons produced by bremsstrahlung mechanism can provide a substantial contribution to the soft dilepton yield at the SPS bombarding energies. In particular, it may be responsible for the dilepton enhancement observed in 160 AGev central Pb+Au collisions. Suggestions for future experiments to estimate the relative contribution of the collective mechanism are given.

- Metastable quark-antiquark droplets within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (1998)
- Chemically non equilibrated quark antiquark matter is studied within the Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. The equations of state of non strange (q = u, d) and strange (q = s) qq systems are calculated in the mean field approximation. The existence of metastable bound states with zero pressure is predicted at finite densities and temperatures T 50 MeV. It is shown that the minimum energy per particle occurs for symmetric systems, with equal densities of quarks and antiquarks. At T = 0 these metastable states have quark number densities of about 0.5 fm 3 for q = u, d and of 1 fm 3 for q = s. A first order chiral phase transition is found at finite densities and temperatures. The critical temperature for this phase transition is approximately 75 MeV (90 MeV) for the non strange (strange) baryon free quark antiquark matter. For realistic choices of parameters, the model does not predict a phase transition in chemically equilibrated systems. Possible decay channels of the metastable qq droplets and their signatures in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed.

- Unusual bound states of quark matter within the NJL model (2000)
- Properties of dense quark matter in and out of chemical equilibrium are studied within the SU(3) Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. In addition to the 4 fermion scalar and vector terms the model includes also the 6 fermion flavour mixing interaction. First we study a novel form of deconfined matter, meso-matter, which is composed of equal number of quarks and antiquarks. It can be thought of as a strongly compressed meson gas where mesons are melted into their elementary constituents, quarks and antiquarks. Strongly bound states in this quark antiquark matter are predicted for all flavour combinations of qq pairs. The maximum binding energy reaches up to 180 MeV per qq pair for mixtures with about 70% of strange (s¯s) pairs. Equilibrated baryon rich quark matter with various flavour compositions is also studied. In this case only shallow bound states appear in systems with a significant admixture(about 40%) of strange quarks (strangelets). Their binding energies are quite sensitive to the relative strengths of scalar and vector interactions. The common property of all these bound states is that they appear at high particle densities when the chiral symmetry is nearly restored. Thermal properties of meso-matter as well as chemically equilibrated strange quark matter are also investigated. Possible decay modes of these bound states are discussed.

- Strange quark matter within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (2000)
- Equation of state of baryon rich quark matter is studied within the SU(3) Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with flavour mixing interaction. Possible bound states (strangelets) and chiral phase transitions in this matter are investigated at various values of strangeness fraction rs. The model predictions are very sensitive to the ratio of vector and scalar coupling constants, ¾ = GV /GS. At ¾ = 0.5 and zero temperature the maximum binding energy (about 15 MeV per baryon) takes place at rs C 0.4. Such strangelets are negatively charged and have typical life times < 10 7 s. The calculations are carried out also at finite temperatures. They show that bound states exist up to temperatures of about 15 MeV. The model predicts a first order chiral phase transition at finite baryon densities. The parameters of this phase transition are calculated as a function of rs.

- Strange quark stars within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (2001)
- We investigate the properties of charge neutral equilibrium cold quark matter within the Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. The calculations are carried out for di erent ratios of coupling constants characterizing the vector and scalar 4 fermion interaction, xi = GV /GS. It is shown that for xi < 0.4 matter is self bound and for xi < 0.65 it has a first order phase transition of the liquid gas type. The Gibbs conditions in the mixed phase are applied for the case of two chemical potentials associated with the baryon number and electric charge. The characteristics of the quark stars are calculated for xi = 0, 0.5 and 1. It is found that the phase transition leads to a strong density variation at the surface of these stars. For xi = 1 the properties of quark stars show behaviors typical for neutron stars. At >< 0.4 the stars near to the maximum mass have a large admixture of strange quarks in their interiors. PACS number: 14.65.-q, 26.60.+c, 97.10.-q

- Enhanced binding and cold compression of nuclei due to admixture of antibaryons (2002)
- We discuss the possibility of producing a new kind of nuclear system by putting a few antibaryons inside ordinary nuclei. The structure of such systems is calculated within the relativistic mean field model assuming that the nucleon and antinucleon potentials are related by the G parity transformation. The presence of antinucleons leads to decreasing vector potential and increasing scalar potential for the nucleons. As a result, a strongly bound system of high density is formed. Due to the significant reduction of the available phase space the annihilation probability might be strongly suppressed in such systems.

- Constraints on possible phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density (2002)
- We compare different models for hadronic and quark phases of cold baryon rich matter in an attempt to find a deconfinement phase transition between them. For the hadronic phase we consider Walecka type mean field models which describe well the nuclear saturation properties. We also use the variational chain model which takes into account correlation effects. For the quark phase we consider the MIT bag model, the Nambu Jona-Lasinio and the massive quasiparticle models. By comparing pressure as a function of baryon chemical potential we find that crossings of hadronic and quark branches are possible only in some exceptional cases while for most realistic parameter sets these branches do not cross at all. Moreover, the chiral phase transition, often discussed within the framework of QCD motivated models, lies in the region where the quark phases are unstable with respect to the hadronic phase. We discuss possible physical consequences of these findings.

- Antibaryons bound in nuclei (2004)
- We study the possibility of producing a new kind of nuclear systems which in addition to ordinary nucleons contain a few antibaryons (B = p, , etc.). The properties of such systems are described within the relativistic mean field model by employing G parity transformed interactions for antibaryons. Calculations are first done for infinite systems and then for finite nuclei from 4He to 208Pb. It is demonstrated that the presence of a real antibaryon leads to a strong rearrangement of a target nucleus resulting in a significant increase of its binding energy and local compression. Noticeable e ects remain even after the antibaryon coupling constants are reduced by factor 3 4 compared to G parity motivated values. We have performed detailed calculations of the antibaryon annihilation rates in the nuclear environment by applying a kinetic approach. It is shown that due to significant reduction of the reaction Q values, the in medium annihilation rates should be strongly suppressed leading to relatively long lived antibaryon nucleus systems. Multi nucleon annihilation channels are analyzed too. We have also estimated formation probabilities of bound B + A systems in pA reactions and have found that their observation will be feasible at the future GSI antiproton facility. Several observable signatures are proposed. The possibility of producing multi quark antiquark clusters is discussed. PACS numbers: 25.43.+t, 21.10.-k, 21.30.Fe, 21.80.+a

- Mach shocks induced by partonic jets in expanding quark-gluon plasma (2005)
- We study Mach shocks generated by fast partonic jets propagating through a deconfined strongly-interacting matter. Our main goal is to take into account different types of collective motion during the formation and evolution of this matter. We predict a significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propagation in a static medium. The observed broadening of the near-side two-particle correlations in pseudorapidity space is explained by the Bjorken-like longitudinal expansion. Three-particle correlation measurements are proposed for a more detailed study of the Mach shock waves.