- Enhanced ROS-generation in lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s patients (2005)
- Introduction: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in neurodegeneration and seem to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of several diseases, including normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Enhanced ROS production in aging or AD is not restricted to the brain, but can also been seen in several peripheral tissues. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative stress in normal senescence and Alzheimer’s disease are identical or not. Methods: We analysed intracellular basal levels of ROS in lymphocytes from AD patients and healthy young and aged not-demented subjects as well as ROS levels following stimulation with d-ribose and staurosporine in all three groups. ROS levels were measured by flow cytometry using the intracellular fluorescence dye dihydrorhodamine123 (DHR123). Results: Our study shows that AD lymphocytes have increased basal levels of ROS, low susceptibility to ROS stimulation by 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib) and an increased response to staurosporine when compared with age-matched controls. Discussion: The data suggest that the defect(s) responsible for enhanced ROS production in AD may involve different or additional biological pathways than those involved in enhanced ROS generation during aging.
- Impact of aging : sporadic, and genetic risk factors on vulnerability to apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (2003)
- The identification of specific genetic (presenilin-1 [PS1] and amyloid precursor protein [APP] mutations) and environmental factors responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has revealed evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death. Moreover, AD-specific cell defects may be observed in many other nonneuronal cells (e.g., lymphocytes). Thus, lymphocytes may serve as a cellular system in which to study risk factors of sporadic, as well as genetic AD in vivo. The aim of our present study was to clarify whether lymphocytes bearing genetic or sporadic risk factors of AD share an increased susceptibility to cell death. Additionally we examined whether a cell typespecific vulnerability pattern was present and how normal aging, the main risk factor of sporadic AD, contributes to changes in susceptibility to cell death. Here, we report that lymphocytes affected by sporadic or genetic APP and PS1 AD risk factors share an increased vulnerability to cell death and exhibit a similar cell type-specific pattern, given that enhanced vulnerability was most strongly developed in the CD4+ T-cell subtype. In this paradigm, sporadic risk factors revealed the highest impact on cell type-specific sensitivity of CD4+ T cells to apoptosis. In contrast, normal aging results in an increased susceptibility to apoptosis of both, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
- Memory Concerns, Memory Performance and Risk of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (2014)
- Background: Concerns about worsening memory (“memory concerns”; MC) and impairment in memory performance are both predictors of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The relationship of both in dementia prediction at the pre-dementia disease stage, however, is not well explored. Refined understanding of the contribution of both MC and memory performance in dementia prediction is crucial for defining at-risk populations. We examined the risk of incident AD by MC and memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We analyzed data of 417 MCI patients from a longitudinal multicenter observational study. Patients were classified based on presence (n = 305) vs. absence (n = 112) of MC. Risk of incident AD was estimated with Cox Proportional-Hazards regression models. Results: Risk of incident AD was increased by MC (HR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1.33–4.89), lower memory performance (HR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.56–0.71) and ApoE4-genotype (HR = 1.89, 95%CI: 1.18–3.02). An interaction effect between MC and memory performance was observed. The predictive power of MC was greatest for patients with very mild memory impairment and decreased with increasing memory impairment. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the power of MC as a predictor of future dementia at the MCI stage varies with the patients' level of cognitive impairment. While MC are predictive at early stage MCI, their predictive value at more advanced stages of MCI is reduced. This suggests that loss of insight related to AD may occur at the late stage of MCI.