- Georg-Speyer-Haus (10) (remove)
- Optimization and antiviral analysis of peptide ligands for the HIV-1 packaging signal PSI (2006)
- Oral presentations Background: We selected peptide ligands for the HIV-1 packaging signal PSI by screening phage displayed peptide libraries. Peptide ligands were optimized by screening spot synthesis peptide membranes. The aim of this study is the functional characterization of these peptide ligands with respect to inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Methods: Phage displayed peptide libraries were screened with PSI-RNA structures. The Trp-rich peptide motifs were optimized for specific binding on spot synthesis peptide membranes. The best binding peptide was expressed intracellularly in fusion with RFP or linked to a protein transduction domain (PTD) for intracellular delivery. The effects on virion production were analyzed using pseudotyped lentiviral particles. Results: After positive and negative selection rounds, phages binding specifically to PSI-RNA were identified by ELISA. Peptide inserts contained conserved motifs of aromatic amino acids known to be implicated in binding of PSI-RNA by the natural Gag ligand. The filter assay identified HKWPWW as the best binding ligand for PSI-RNA, which is delivered into several cell lines by addition of a PTD. Compared to a control peptide, the HKWPWW peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication as deduced from reduced titers of culture supernatants. As HKWPWW also binds to the TAR-RNA like the natural nucleocapsid PSI-RNA ligand, the effect on Tat-TAR inhibition will also be analyzed. Currently T-cell lines are established which stably express HKWPWW as well as a control peptide, which will be infected with HIV-1 to monitor the ability of HKWPWW to inhibit wild type HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: The selection of a peptide ligand for PSI-RNA able to inhibit HIV-1 replication proves the suitability of the phage display technology for the selection of peptides binding to RNA-structures. This enables the indentification of peptides serving as leads to interfere with additional targets in the HIV-1 replication cycle.
- Wichtiger Teilerfolg in der Gentherapie : Interview mit Dr. Marion Gabriele Ott und Dr. Manuel Grez (2006)
- Die Septische Granulomatose (CGD) ist eine seltene Erkrankung, die auf einem genetischen Defekt bestimmter weißer Blutzellen beruht, die darauf spezialisiert sind, in den Körper eingedrungene Pilze und Bakterien aufzuspüren und zu vernichten. Frankfurter Ärzten und Wissenschaftlern um Prof. Dr. Dieter Hoelzer vom Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität und Dr. Manuel Grez vom Chemotherapeutischen Forschungsinstitut Georg-Speyer-Haus gelang es, eine intakte Kopie des defekten Gens in Blutstammzellen von zwei erwachsenen CGD-Patienten einzuschleusen und so die Funktion der Fresszellen teilweise wieder herzustellen. Eine vollständige Heilung gelang jedoch nicht – ein Patient verstarb zwei Jahre nach der zunächst erfolgreichen Behandlung an seiner Grunderkrankung. Im Gespräch mit Dr. Anne Hardy berichten Dr. Marion Gabriele Ott (Arbeitsgruppe Hoelzer) und Dr. Manuel Grez (Georg-Speyer-Haus) über die Höhen und Tiefen ihrer gentherapeutischen Forschung.
- Post-transcriptional regulation of 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression via alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (2012)
- 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the two initial steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LT), a group of inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. Here, we investigated the regulation of 5-LO mRNA expression by alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). In the present study, we report the identification of 2 truncated transcripts and 4 novel 5-LO splice variants containing premature termination codons (PTC). The characterization of one of the splice variants, 5-LOΔ3, revealed that it is a target for NMD since knockdown of the NMD factors UPF1, UPF2 and UPF3b in the human monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 (MM6) altered the expression of 5-LOΔ3 mRNA up to 2-fold in a cell differentiation-dependent manner suggesting that cell differentiation alters the composition or function of the NMD complex. In contrast, the mature 5-LO mRNA transcript was not affected by UPF knockdown. Thus, the data suggest that the coupling of alternative splicing and NMD is involved in the regulation of 5-LO gene expression.
- Die Gentherapie kommt aus den Kinderschuhen : über beeindruckende Erfolge und die Beseitigung von Stolpersteinen (2013)
- Rückschläge werfen eine neue Technologie um Jahrzehnte zurück – besonders, wenn Menschenleben zu beklagen sind. Bei der Gentherapie wird aber oft vergessen, dass sie nur bei Patienten angewendet wird, für die es keine konventionelle Therapie mehr gibt. Nach der Euphorie und den Rückschlägen der Anfangsjahre können Forscher nun die ersten Erfolge vorweisen.
- Gene therapy on the move (2013)
- he first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders.
- Interference with RUNX1/ETO leukemogenic function by cell-penetrating peptides targeting the NHR2 oligomerization domain (2013)
- The leukemia-associated fusion protein RUNX1/ETO is generated by the chromosomal translocation t(8;21) which appears in about 12% of all de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Essential for the oncogenic potential of RUNX1/ETO is the oligomerization of the chimeric fusion protein through the nervy homology region 2 (NHR2) within ETO. In previous studies, we have shown that the intracellular expression of peptides containing the NHR2 domain inhibits RUNX1/ETO oligomerization, thereby preventing cell proliferation and inducing differentiation of RUNX1/ETO transformed cells. Here, we show that introduction of a recombinant TAT-NHR2 fusion polypeptide into the RUNX1/ETO growth-dependent myeloid cell line Kasumi-1 results in decreased cell proliferation and increased numbers of apoptotic cells. This effect was highly specific and mediated by binding the TAT-NHR2 peptide to ETO sequences, as TAT-polypeptides containing the oligomerization domain of BCR did not affect cell proliferation or apoptosis in Kasumi-1 cells. Thus, the selective interference with NHR2-mediated oligomerization by peptides represents a challenging but promising strategy for the inhibition of the leukemogenic potential of RUNX1/ETO in t(8;21)-positive leukemia.
- From bench to bedside: preclinical evaluation of a self-inactivating gammaretroviral vector for the gene therapy of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (2013)
- Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by impaired antimicrobial activity in phagocytic cells. As a monogenic disease affecting the hematopoietic system, CGD is amenable to gene therapy. Indeed in a phase I/II clinical trial, we demonstrated a transient resolution of bacterial and fungal infections. However, the therapeutic benefit was compromised by the occurrence of clonal dominance and malignant transformation demanding alternative vectors with equal efficacy but safety-improved features. In this work we have developed and tested a self-inactivating (SIN) gammaretroviral vector (SINfes.gp91s) containing a codon-optimized transgene (gp91(phox)) under the transcriptional control of a myeloid promoter for the gene therapy of the X-linked form of CGD (X-CGD). Gene-corrected cells protected X-CGD mice from Aspergillus fumigatus challenge at low vector copy numbers. Moreover, the SINfes.gp91s vector generates substantial amounts of superoxide in human cells transplanted into immunodeficient mice. In vitro genotoxicity assays and longitudinal high-throughput integration site analysis in transplanted mice comprising primary and secondary animals for 11 months revealed a safe integration site profile with no signs of clonal dominance.
- Gentherapie der septischen Granulomatose: Chancen und Risiken : der Weg zur erfolgreichen Therapie einer angeborenen Immundefizienz (2011)
- Im Jahre 2004 sind am Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt zwei Patienten mit X-CGD gentherapeutisch behandelt worden. Nach einer initialen Phase mit Nachweis ausreichender Mengen Oxidase-positiver Zellen im Blut der Patienten und einer deutlichen klinischen Besserung vorbestehender Infektionsherde kam es zu einem Verlust der Transgenexpression durch epigenetische Veränderungen des viralen Promotors. Ferner entwickelte sich durch Insertionsmutagenese eine klonale Expansion in der Hämatopoese und schließlich ein myelodysplastisches Syndrom mit Monosomie 7 bei beiden Patienten. In der Zusammenschau mit anderen Gentherapiestudien zur X-CGD zeigt sich, dass bislang ein langanhaltendes Engraftment funktionierender genkorrigierter Zellen nur im Zusammenhang mit einer Insertionsmutagenese beobachtet wurde. Zukünftige gentherapeutische Strategien zur Behandlung der X-CGD müssen das Risiko einer Insertionsmutagenese minimieren und gleichzeitig die Effektivität des Engraftments genkorrigierter Zellen steigern. Dies soll durch den Einsatz von SIN-Vektoren sowie einer Intensivierung der Konditionierung der Patienten erreicht werden.
- Genomic instability and myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 consequent to EVI1 activation after gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease (2010)
- Gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can provide ample clinical benefits to subjects suffering from X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), a rare inherited immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent, often life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Here we report on the molecular and cellular events observed in two young adults with X-CGD treated by gene therapy in 2004. After the initial resolution of bacterial and fungal infections, both subjects showed silencing of transgene expression due to methylation of the viral promoter, and myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 as a result of insertional activation of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1). One subject died from overwhelming sepsis 27 months after gene therapy, whereas a second subject underwent an allogeneic HSC transplantation. Our data show that forced overexpression of EVI1 in human cells disrupts normal centrosome duplication, linking EVI1 activation to the development of genomic instability, monosomy 7 and clonal progression toward myelodysplasia.
- A minimal ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) effectively prevents silencing of juxtaposed heterologous promoters by epigenetic remodeling in multipotent and pluripotent stem cells (2015)
- Epigenetic silencing of transgene expression represents a major obstacle for the efficient genetic modification of multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. We and others have demonstrated that a 1.5 kb methylation-free CpG island from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 housekeeping genes (A2UCOE) effectively prevents transgene silencing and variegation in cell lines, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells, and their differentiated progeny. However, the bidirectional promoter activity of this element may disturb expression of neighboring genes. Furthermore, the epigenetic basis underlying the anti-silencing effect of the UCOE on juxtaposed promoters has been only partially explored. In this study we removed the HNRPA2B1 moiety from the A2UCOE and demonstrate efficient anti-silencing properties also for a minimal 0.7 kb element containing merely the CBX3 promoter. This DNA element largely prevents silencing of viral and tissue-specific promoters in multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. The protective activity of CBX3 was associated with reduced promoter CpG-methylation, decreased levels of repressive and increased levels of active histone marks. Moreover, the anti-silencing effect of CBX3 was locally restricted and when linked to tissue-specific promoters did not activate transcription in off target cells. Thus, CBX3 is a highly attractive element for sustained, tissue-specific and copy-number dependent transgene expression in vitro and in vivo.