Year of publication
- Transverse momentum spectra of J/psi and psi prime mesons from quark gluon plasma hadronization in nuclear collisions (2001)
- Recent results on transverse mass spectra of J/psi and psi prime mesons in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV are considered. It is shown that those results support a hypothesis of statistical production of charmonia at hadronization and suggest the early thermal freeze-out of J/psi and psi prime mesons. Based on this approach the collective transverse velocity of hadronizing quark gluon plasma is estimated to be <v^H_T> \approx 0.2. Predictions for transverse mass spectra of hidden and open charm mesons at SPS and RHIC are discussed.
- Transverse activity of kaons and the deconfinement phase transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions (2003)
- We found that the experimental results on transverse mass spectra of kaons produced in central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) interactions show an anomalous dependence on the collision energy. The inverse slopes of the spectra increase with energy in the low (AGS) and high (RHIC) energy domains, whereas they are constant in the intermediate (SPS) energy range. We argue that this anomaly is probably caused by a modification of the equation of state in the transition region between confined and deconfined matter. This observation may be considered as a new signal, in addition to the previously reported anomalies in the pion and strangeness production, of the onset of deconfinement located in the low SPS energy domain.
- Transparency, mixing and reflection of initial flows in relativistic nuclear collisions (2006)
- We propose to use the hadron number fluctuations in the limited momentum regions to study the evolution of initial flows in high energy nuclear collisions. In this method by a proper preparation of a collision sample the projectile and target initial flows are marked in fluctuations in the number of colliding nucleons. We discuss three limiting cases of the evolution of flows, transparency, mixing and reflection, and present for them quantitative predictions obtained within several models. Finally, we apply the method to the NA49 results on fluctuations of the negatively charged hadron multiplicity in Pb+Pb interactions at 158A GeV and conclude that the data favor a hydrodynamical model with a significant degree of mixing of the initial flows at the early stage of collisions.
- Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.
- Strangeness in Nuclear Collisions (1996)
- Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.
- Strangeness and pion production as signals of QCD phase transition (1997)
- A systematic analysis of data on strangeness and pion production in nucleon–nucleon and central nucleus–nucleus collisions is presented. It is shown that at all collision energies the pion/baryon and strangeness/pion ratios indicate saturation with the size of the colliding nuclei. The energy dependence of the saturation level suggests that the transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma occurs between 15 A·GeV/c (BNL AGS) and 160 A·GeV/c (CERN SPS) collision energies. The experimental results interpreted in the framework of a statistical approach show that the effective number of degrees of freedom increases in the course of the phase transition and that the plasma created at CERN SPS energies may have a temperature of about 280 MeV (energy density ~ 10 GeV/fm exp-3). The presence of the phase transition can lead to the non–monotonic collision energy dependence of the strangeness/pion ratio. After an initial increase the ratio should drop to the characteristic value for the QGP. Above the transition region the ratio is expected to be collision energy independent. Experimental studies of central Pb+Pb collisions in the energy range 20–160 A·GeV/c are urgently needed in order to localize the threshold energy, and study the properties of the QCD phase transition.
- Search for short lived particles in high multiplicity environment (1999)
- A method of statistical selection of short lived particles in high multiplicity nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed.
- Report from NA49 (2004)
- The most recent data of NA49 on hadron production in nuclear collisions at CERN SPS energies are presented. Anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions are observed. They suggest that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 AGeV. Large multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations are measured for collisions of intermediate mass systems at 158 AGeV. The need for a new experimental programme at the CERN SPS is underlined.
- Quark gluon plasma in a + a collisions at CERN SPS (1998)
- A brief review of a history of data collection and interpretation of the results on high energy A+A collisions is presented. Basic assumptions and main results of a statistical model of the early stage of the A+A collisions are discussed. It is concluded that a broad set of experimental data is in agreement with the hypothesis that QGP is created in central A+A (S+S and Pb+Pb) collisions at the SPS. Carefull experimental investigation of the A+A collisions in the energy region between top AGS and SPS energies is needed.