Year of publication
- From p+p to Pb+Pb collisions: wounded nucleon versus statistical models (2013)
- System size dependence of hadron production properties is discussed within the Wounded Nucleon Model and the Statistical Model in the grand canonical, canonical and micro-canonical formulations. Similarities and differences between predictions of the models related to the treatment of conservation laws are exposed. A need for models which would combine a hydrodynamicallike expansion with conservation laws obeyed in individual collisions is stressed.
- A new SPS programme (2006)
- A new experiemntal program to study hadron production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS has been recently proposed by the NA49-future collaboration. The physics goals of the program are: (i) search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter and a study of the properties of the onset of deconfinemnt in nucleus-nucleus collisions, (ii) measurements of correlations, fluctuations and hadron spectra at high transverse momentum in proton-nucleus collisions needed as for better understanding of nucleus-nucleus results, (iii) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger Observatory and KASCADE) expriments. The physics of the nucleus-nucleus program is reviewed in this presentation.
- Transparency, mixing and reflection of initial flows in relativistic nuclear collisions (2006)
- We propose to use the hadron number fluctuations in the limited momentum regions to study the evolution of initial flows in high energy nuclear collisions. In this method by a proper preparation of a collision sample the projectile and target initial flows are marked in fluctuations in the number of colliding nucleons. We discuss three limiting cases of the evolution of flows, transparency, mixing and reflection, and present for them quantitative predictions obtained within several models. Finally, we apply the method to the NA49 results on fluctuations of the negatively charged hadron multiplicity in Pb+Pb interactions at 158A GeV and conclude that the data favor a hydrodynamical model with a significant degree of mixing of the initial flows at the early stage of collisions.
- Fluctuations and NA49 (2005)
- A brief history of the study of fluctuations in high energy nuclear collisions at the CERN SPS performed by NA49 is presented. The ideas and the corresponding experimental data on fluctuations are discussed from the point of view of their sensitivity to the onset of deconfinement.
- Energy and system size dependence of chemical freeze-out in relativistic nuclear collisions (2005)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in p-p, C-C, Si-Si and Pb-Pb collisions at beam momenta of 158A GeV as well as Pb-Pb collisions at beam momenta of 20A, 30A, 40A and 80A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization model, we have studied the parameters of the source as a function of the number of the participating nucleons and the beam energy. We observe a nice smooth behaviour of temperature, baryon chemical potential and strangeness under-saturation parameter as a function of energy and nucleus size. Interpolating formulas are provided which allow to predict the chemical freeze-out parameters in central collisions at centre-of-mass energies > 4.5 GeV and for any colliding ions. Specific discrepancies between data and model emerge in particle ratios in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS between 20A and 40A GeV of beam energy which cannot be accounted for in the considered model schemes.
- Critical line of the deconfinement phase transition (2005)
- Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential muB, and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or muB. The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag mass-volume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the muB/T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1st} order transition at a high muB/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2nd order phase transition at an intermediate muB/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low muB/T.
- Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.
- Evidence for an exotic S=-2, Q=-2 baryon resonance in proton-proton collisions at the CERN SPS (2004)
- Results of resonance searches in the Xi - pi -, Xi - pi +, Xi -bar+ pi -, and Xi -bar+ pi + invariant mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=17.2 GeV are presented. Evidence is shown for the existence of a narrow Xi - pi - baryon resonance with mass of 1.862±0.002 GeV/c2 and width below the detector resolution of about 0.018 GeV/c2. The significance is estimated to be above 4.2 sigma . This state is a candidate for the hypothetical exotic Xi --3/2 baryon with S=-2, I=3 / 2, and a quark content of (dsdsu-bar). At the same mass, a peak is observed in the Xi - pi + spectrum which is a candidate for the Xi 03/2 member of this isospin quartet with a quark content of (dsusd-bar). The corresponding antibaryon spectra also show enhancements at the same invariant mass.
- Observation of deconfinement phase transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions (2004)
- The main results obtained within the energy scan program at the CERN SPS are presented. The anomalies in energy dependence of hadron production indicate that the onset of deconfinement phase transition is located at about 30 A GeV. For the first time we seem to have clear evidence for the existence of a deconfined state of matter in nature. PACS numbers: 24.85.+p