Year of publication
- Report from NA49 (2004)
- The most recent data of NA49 on hadron production in nuclear collisions at CERN SPS energies are presented. Anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions are observed. They suggest that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 AGeV. Large multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations are measured for collisions of intermediate mass systems at 158 AGeV. The need for a new experimental programme at the CERN SPS is underlined.
- Energy and centrality dependence of deuteron and proton production in Pb+Pb collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- The transverse mass mt distributions for deuterons and protons are measured in Pb+Pb reactions near midrapidity and in the range 0<mt–m<1.0 (1.5) GeV/c2 for minimum bias collisions at 158A GeV and for central collisions at 40 and 80 A GeV beam energies. The rapidity density dn/dy, inverse slope parameter T and mean transverse mass <mt> derived from mt distributions as well as the coalescence parameter B2 are studied as a function of the incident energy and the collision centrality. The deuteron mt spectra are significantly harder than those of protons, especially in central collisions. The coalescence factor B2 shows three systematic trends. First, it decreases strongly with increasing centrality reflecting an enlargement of the deuteron coalescence volume in central Pb+Pb collisions. Second, it increases with mt. Finally, B2 shows an increase with decreasing incident beam energy even within the SPS energy range. The results are discussed and compared to the predictions of models that include the collective expansion of the source created in Pb+Pb collisions.
- Critical line of the deconfinement phase transition (2005)
- Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential muB, and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or muB. The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag mass-volume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the muB/T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1st} order transition at a high muB/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2nd order phase transition at an intermediate muB/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low muB/T.
- Hadron spectra and QGP hadronization in Au + Au collisions at RHIC (2002)
- The transverse mass spectra of Omega hyperons and phi mesons measured recently by STAR Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 130 GeV are described within a hydrodynamic model of the quark gluon plasma expansion and hadronization. The flow parameters at the plasma hadronization extracted by fitting these data are used to predict the transverse mass spectra of J/psi and psi' mesons.
- On transverse momentum event–by–event fluctuations in string hadronic models (1998)
- Transverse momentum event-by-event fluctuations are studied within the string-hadronic model of high energy nuclear collisions, LUCIAE. Data on non-statistical pT fluctuations in p+p interactions are reproduced. Fluctuations of similar magnitude are predicted for nucleus-nucleus collisions, in contradiction to the preliminary NA49 results. The introduction of a string clustering mechanism (Firecracker Model) leads to a further, significant increase of pT fluctuations for nucleus-nucleus collisions. Secondary hadronic interactions, as implemented in LUCIAE, cause only a small reduction of pT fluctuations.
- Strangeness and pion production as signals of QCD phase transition (1997)
- A systematic analysis of data on strangeness and pion production in nucleon–nucleon and central nucleus–nucleus collisions is presented. It is shown that at all collision energies the pion/baryon and strangeness/pion ratios indicate saturation with the size of the colliding nuclei. The energy dependence of the saturation level suggests that the transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma occurs between 15 A·GeV/c (BNL AGS) and 160 A·GeV/c (CERN SPS) collision energies. The experimental results interpreted in the framework of a statistical approach show that the effective number of degrees of freedom increases in the course of the phase transition and that the plasma created at CERN SPS energies may have a temperature of about 280 MeV (energy density ~ 10 GeV/fm exp-3). The presence of the phase transition can lead to the non–monotonic collision energy dependence of the strangeness/pion ratio. After an initial increase the ratio should drop to the characteristic value for the QGP. Above the transition region the ratio is expected to be collision energy independent. Experimental studies of central Pb+Pb collisions in the energy range 20–160 A·GeV/c are urgently needed in order to localize the threshold energy, and study the properties of the QCD phase transition.