- Human immunodeficiency virus: 25 years of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and their impact on hepatitis B and C virus (2009)
- The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had spread unrecognized in the human population as sexually transmitted disease and was finally identified by its disease AIDS in 1981. Even after the isolation of the causative agent in 1983, the burden and death rate of AIDS accelerated worldwide especially in young people despite the confection of new drugs capable to inhibit virus replication since 1997. However, at least in industrialised countries, this trend could be reversed by the introduction of combination therapy strategies. The design of new drugs is on going; besides the inhibition of the three enzymes of HIV for replication and maturation (reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease), further drugs inhibits fusion of viral and cellular membranes and virus maturation. On the other hand, viral diagnostics had been considerably improved since the emergence of HIV. There was a need to identify infected people correctly, to follow up the course of immune reconstitution of patients by measuring viral load and CD4 cells, and to analyse drug escape mutations leading to drug resistance. Both the development of drugs and the refined diagnostics have been transferred to the treatment of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). This progress is not completed; there are beneficial aspects in the response of the scientific community to the HIV burden for the management of other viral diseases. These aspects are described in this contribution. Further aspects as handling a stigmatising disease, education of self-responsiveness within sexual relationships, and ways for confection of a protective vaccine are not covered.
- Virological and immunological response to three boosted protease inhibitor regimens (2008)
- Poster presentation: Purpose of the study To compare the virological, immunological and clinical response to three boosted double protease inhibitor (PI) regimens of saquinavir and ritonavir in combination with lopinavir (LOPSAQ), atazanavir (ATSAQ) or fosamprenavir (FOSAQ) without reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) in HIV-positive patients with limited RTI treatment options. ...
- Determination of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in German patients : comparison of genotypic methods with the TROFILE® phenotypic assay (2008)
- Poster presentation: Background Maraviroc is a new drug used to treat HIV infection from the new class of drugs called CCR5 entry inhibitors. As the active principle of these drugs is to block the CCR5-receptor on the surface of the target cells, it has to be known if the virus in the patient is using only CCR5 as co-receptor or if there are populations that can also use CXCR4. Therefore, an assay to determine the tropism has to be performed before starting a therapy. Besides phenotypic assays like the TROFILE® assay by Monogram, used in the approval studies, there exist several genotyping systems like geno2pheno-coreceptor, Wetcat (providing five different genotypic tropism schemes) and WebPSSM. ...
- The L76V mutation in HIV-1 protease is potentially associated with hypersusceptibility to protease inhibitors Atazanavir and Saquinavir: is there a clinical advantage? (2011)
- Background: Although being considered as a rarely observed HIV-1 protease mutation in clinical isolates, the L76V-prevalence increased 1998-2008 in some European countries most likely due to the approval of Lopinavir, Amprenavir and Darunavir which can select L76V. Beside an enhancement of resistance, L76V is also discussed to confer hypersusceptibility to the drugs Atazanavir and Saquinavir which might enable new treatment strategies by trying to take advantage of particular mutations. Results: Based on a cohort of 47 L76V-positive patients, we examined if there might exist a clinical advantage for L76V-positive patients concerning long-term success of PI-containing regimens in patients with limited therapy options. Genotypic- and phenotypic HIV-resistance tests from 47 mostly multi-resistant, L76V-positive patients throughout Germany were accomplished retrospectively 1999-2009. Five genotype-based drug-susceptibility predictions received from online interpretation-tools for Atazanavir, Saquinavir, Amprenavir and Lopinavir, were compared to phenotype-based predictions that were determined by using a recombinant virus assay along with a Virtual Phenotype™(Virco). The clinical outcome of the L76V-adapted follow-up therapy was determined by monitoring viral load for 96 weeks. Conclusions: In this analysis, the mostly used interpretation systems overestimated the L76V-mutation concerning Atazanavir- and SQV resistance. In fact, a clear benefit in drug susceptibility for these drugs was observed in phenotype analysis after establishment of L76V. More importantly, long-term therapy success was significantly higher in patients receiving Atazanavir and/or Saquinavir plus one L76V-selecting drug compared to patients without L76V-selecting agents (p = 0.002). In case of L76V-occurrence ATV and/or SQV may represent encouraging options for patients in deep salvage situations.