Year of publication
- 2012 (2) (remove)
- Vitamin D3 receptor is highly expressed in Hodgkin s lymphoma (2012)
- Background: Hodkin s lymphoma is one of the most frequent lymphoma in western world. Despite an overall good prognosis some patients suffer relapsing tumors which are difficult to cure. Over a long period Vitamin D has been shown to be a potential treatment for cancer. Vitamin D acts via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear receptor, acting as an inducible transcription factor. We aimed to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptor as potential therapeutic target structure in Hodgkin s lymphoma as well as in non Hodgkin s lymphoma. Methods: We used a panel of 193 formalin fixed tissues of lymphoma cases consisting of 55 cases of Hodgkin s lymphoma and 138 cases on several non Hodgkin s lymphoma entities. Results: Vitamin D receptor is strongly expressed in Hodgkin s lymphoma, regardless of the subentity with an overall positivity of 80% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases. In contrast, only about 17% of the analyzed non Hodgkin s lymphoma of B-cell origin showed positivity for vitamin D receptor. Predominant nuclear localization of vitamin D receptor in Hodgkin s lymphoma suggests activated status of the vitamin D receptor. Conclusions: From this study, we conclude that vitamin D receptor plays a potentially important role in pathogenesis of Hodgkin s lymphoma but not in non Hodgkin s lymphoma. Further investigations of mutational status and functional studies may shed some light in functional relevance of vitamin D receptor signaling in Hodgkin s lymphoma.
- GLUT1 expression patterns in different Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes and progressively transformed germinal centers (2012)
- Background: Increased glycolytic activity is a hallmark of cancer, allowing staging and restaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography (PET). Since interim-PET is an important prognostic tool in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of proteins involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism in the different HL subtypes and their impact on clinical outcome. Methods: Lymph node biopsies from 54 HL cases and reactive lymphoid tissue were stained for glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and lactate exporter proteins MCT1 and MCT4. In a second series, samples from additional 153 HL cases with available clinical data were stained for GLUT1 and LDHA. Results: Membrane bound GLUT1 expression was frequently observed in the tumor cells of HL (49% of all cases) but showed a broad variety between the different Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: Nodular sclerosing HL subtype displayed a membrane bound GLUT1 expression in the Hodgkin-and Reed-Sternberg cells in 56% of the cases. However, membrane bound GLUT1 expression was more rarely observed in tumor cells of lymphocyte rich classical HL subtype (30%) or nodular lymphocyte predominant HL subtype (15%). Interestingly, in both of these lymphocyte rich HL subtypes as well as in progressively transformed germinal centers, reactive B cells displayed strong expression of GLUT1. LDHA, acting downstream of glycolysis, was also expressed in 44% of all cases. We evaluated the prognostic value of different GLUT1 and LDHA expression patterns; however, no significant differences in progression free or overall survival were found between patients exhibiting different GLUT1 or LDHA expression patterns. There was no correlation between GLUT1 expression in HRS cells and PET standard uptake values. Conclusions: In a large number of cases, HRS cells in classical HL express high levels of GLUT1 and LDHA indicating glycolytic activity in the tumor cells. Although interim-PET is an important prognostic tool, a predictive value of GLUT1 or LDHA staining of the primary diagnostic biopsy could not be demonstrated. However, we observed GLUT1 expression in progressively transformed germinal centers and hyperplastic follicles, explaining false positive results in PET. Therefore, PET findings suggestive of HL relapse should always be confirmed by histology.