### Refine

- Fields nonlocal in Clifford space. I. Classical Gauge-invariant nonlinear field theory (1972)
- A fully gauge-invariant, Lorentz-covariant, nonlocal, and nonlinear theory, for coupled spin-½ fields, ψ, and vector fields, A, i.e., "electrons" and "photons," is constructed. The field theory is linear in the ψ fields. The nonlinearity in the A fields arises unambiguously from the requirement of gauge invariance. The coordinates are generalized to admit hypercomplex values, i.e., they are taken to be Clifford numbers. The nonlocality is limited to the hypercomplex component of the coordinates. As the size of the nonlocality is reduced toward zero, the theory goes over into the inhomogeneous Dirac theory. The nonlocality parameter corresponds to an inverse mass and induces self-regulatory properties of the propagators. It is argued that in a gauge-invariant theory a graph-by-graph convergence is impossible in principle, but it is possible that convergence may hold for the complete solution, or for sums over classes of graphs.

- Continuum nuclear structure of O16 in the Eigenchannel reaction theory (1967)
- The total particle-particle SJ matrix of O16 for spin J=1- and excitation energies between 15 and 27 MeV has been calculated in the eigenchannel reaction theory for several parameters of the Saxon-Woods potential and the two-body force. The many-body problem has been treated in the 1-particle-1-hole approximation. The photon channels have been included by perturbation theory. Surprisingly, the most important structure of the experimental cross sections is reproduced quite well in this simple approximation.

- Collective treatment of the giant resonances in spherical nuclei (1966)
- In a collective treatment the energies of the giant resonances are given by the boundary conditions at the nuclear surface, which is subject to vibration in spherical nuclei. The general form of the coupling between these two collective motions is given by angular-momentum and parity conservation. The coupling constants are completely determined within the hydrodynamical model. In the present treatment the influence of the surface vibrations on the total photon-absorption cross section is calculated. It turns out that in most of the spherical nuclei this interaction leads to a pronounced structure in the cross section. The agreement with the experiments in medium-heavy nuclei is striking; many of the experimental characteristics are reproduced by the present calculations. In some nuclei, however, there seem to be indications of single-particle excitations which are not yet contained in this work.

- Photonuclear effect in heavy deformed nuclei (1966)
- The theory of Raman scattering is extended to include electric-quadrupole radiation. The results obtained are used to compute the elastic and Raman scattering cross sections of heavy deformed nuclei. The dipole and quadrupole resonances are described by a previously developed theory which includes surface vibrations and rotations. The computed cross sections are compared with experimental data for all those nuclei where both absorption and scattering cross sections are available. Some discrepances still exist in certain details; however, the over-all agreement between theory and experiment is very good.

- Static theory of the giant quadrupole resonance in deformed nuclei (1966)
- The modes and frequencies of the giant quadrupole resonance of heavy deformed nuclei have been calculated. The quadrupole operator is computed and the absorption cross section is derived. The quadrupole sum rule is discussed, and the relevant oscillator strengths have been evaluated for various orientations of the nucleus. The giant quadrupole resonances have energies between 20 and 25 MeV. The total absorption cross section is about 20% of the giant dipole absorption cross section. Of particular interest is the occurrence of the quadrupole mode which is sensitive to the nuclear radius in a direction of approximately θ=1/4π from the symmetry axis. This may give information on the details of the nuclear shape.

- Shell-model treatment of nuclear reactions (1965)
- A method is developed for the calculation of resonant nuclear states which preserves as many features of the shell model as possible. It is an extension of the R-matrix theory. The necessary formulas are derived and a detailed description of the computational procedure is given. The method is valid up to the two-particle emission threshold. With the assumption of consecutive decay of the nucleus, the two-particle emission process can also be described. The treatment is antisymmetrized in all particles.

- Damping of the giant resonance in heavy nuclei (1965)
- In heavy nuclei the damping of the giant resonance is due to thermalization of the energy rather than to direct emission of particles; the latter process is strongly inhibited by the angular-momentum barrier. The thermalization proceeds via inelastic collisions leading from the particle-hole state to two-particle-two-hole states. In heavy nuclei, several hundred such states are available at the energy of the giant dipole resonance. The rather large width of the giant resonance arises from the addition of many small partial widths of channels leading to the different two-particle-two-hole states. Both the density of the two-particle-two-hole states and the mean value of the interaction matrix elements between the particle-hole and two-particle-two-hole states are evaluated in a simplified square-well shell model. In a given nucleus the energy dependence of the widths is determined mainly by the density of states; the A dependence is determined mainly by the size of the matrix elements. For A≈200, we find 0.5 MeV≤Γ≤2.5 MeV. The uncertainty in this value comes mostly from the uncertainty in the strength of the interaction. Representing the energy dependence of the width by a power law we find for the exponent the value ∼1.8.

- Dynamic collective theory of odd-a nuclei (1965)
- The unified model and the collective giant-dipole-resonance model are unified. The resulting energy spectrum and the transition probabilities are derived. A new approximate selection rule involving the symmetry of the γ vibrations is established. It is verified that the main observable features in the photon-absorption cross section are not influenced by the odd particle, despite the considerably richer spectrum of states as compared to even-even nuclei.

- Eigenchannel theory of nuclear reactions (1966)
- A method is proposed by which the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the S matrix, i.e., the eigenchannels, can be directly computed from the nuclear problem, for example, from the shell model. The calculation of all cross sections, viz., partial and total cross sections, is then exceedingly simple. The characteristics of the eigenchannels are described and the relation with other reaction theories is briefly discussed.