- ATXN2-CAG42 sequesters PABPC1 into insolubility and induces FBXW8 in cerebellum of old ataxic knock-in mice (2012)
- Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 (SCA2) is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine encoding triplet repeat in the human ATXN2 gene beyond (CAG)31. This is thought to mediate toxic gain-of-function by protein aggregation and to affect RNA processing, resulting in degenerative processes affecting preferentially cerebellar neurons. As a faithful animal model, we generated a knock-in mouse replacing the single CAG of murine Atxn2 with CAG42, a frequent patient genotype. This expansion size was inherited stably. The mice showed phenotypes with reduced weight and later motor incoordination. Although brain Atxn2 mRNA became elevated, soluble ATXN2 protein levels diminished over time, which might explain partial loss-of-function effects. Deficits in soluble ATXN2 protein correlated with the appearance of insoluble ATXN2, a progressive feature in cerebellum possibly reflecting toxic gains-of-function. Since in vitro ATXN2 overexpression was known to reduce levels of its protein interactor PABPC1, we studied expansion effects on PABPC1. In cortex, PABPC1 transcript and soluble and insoluble protein levels were increased. In the more vulnerable cerebellum, the progressive insolubility of PABPC1 was accompanied by decreased soluble protein levels, with PABPC1 mRNA showing no compensatory increase. The sequestration of PABPC1 into insolubility by ATXN2 function gains was validated in human cell culture. To understand consequences on mRNA processing, transcriptome profiles at medium and old age in three different tissues were studied and demonstrated a selective induction of Fbxw8 in the old cerebellum. Fbxw8 is encoded next to the Atxn2 locus and was shown in vitro to decrease the level of expanded insoluble ATXN2 protein. In conclusion, our data support the concept that expanded ATXN2 undergoes progressive insolubility and affects PABPC1 by a toxic gain-of-function mechanism with tissuespecific effects, which may be partially alleviated by the induction of FBXW8.
- Alpha-synuclein deficiency leads to increased glyoxalase I expression and glycation stress (2010)
- The presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein has received much attention because its gain-of-function is associated with Parkinson’s disease. However, its physiological function is still poorly understood. We studied brain regions of knock-out mice at different ages with regard to consistent upregulations of the transcriptome and focused on glyoxalase I (GLO1). The microarray data were confirmed in qPCR, immunoblot, enzyme activity, and behavior analyses. GLO1 induction is a known protective cellular response to glucose stress, representing efforts to decrease toxic levels of methylglyoxal (MG), glyoxal and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Mass spectrometry quantification demonstrated a ubiquitous increase in MG and fructosyl-lysine as consequences of glucose toxicity, and consistent enhancement of certain AGEs. Thus, GLO1 induction in KO brain seems insufficient to prevent AGE formation. In conclusion, the data demonstrate GLO1 expression and glycation damage to be induced by alpha-synuclein ablation. We propose that wild-type alpha-synuclein modulates brain glucose metabolism.