- Causes of metabolic acidosis in canine hemorrhagic shock: role of unmeasured ions (2007)
- INTRODUCTION: Metabolic acidosis during hemorrhagic shock is common and conventionally considered to be due to hyperlactatemia. There is increasing awareness, however, that other nonlactate, unmeasured anions contribute to this type of acidosis. METHODS: Eleven anesthetized dogs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 45 mm Hg and were kept at this level until a metabolic oxygen debt of 120 mLO2/kg body weight had evolved. Blood pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, lactate, albumin, and phosphate were measured at baseline, in shock, and during 3 hours post-therapy. Strong ion difference and the amount of weak plasma acid were calculated. To detect the presence of unmeasured anions, anion gap and strong ion gap were determined. Capillary electrophoresis was used to identify potential contributors to unmeasured anions. RESULTS: During induction of shock, pH decreased significantly from 7.41 to 7.19. The transient increase in lactate concentration from 1.5 to 5.5 mEq/L during shock was not sufficient to explain the transient increases in anion gap (+11.0 mEq/L) and strong ion gap (+7.1 mEq/L), suggesting that substantial amounts of unmeasured anions must have been generated. Capillary electrophoresis revealed increases in serum concentration of acetate (2.2 mEq/L), citrate (2.2 mEq/L), alpha-ketoglutarate (35.3 microEq/L), fumarate (6.2 microEq/L), sulfate (0.1 mEq/L), and urate (55.9 microEq/L) after shock induction. CONCLUSION: Large amounts of unmeasured anions were generated after hemorrhage in this highly standardized model of hemorrhagic shock. Capillary electrophoresis suggested that the hitherto unmeasured anions citrate and acetate, but not sulfate, contributed significantly to the changes in strong ion gap associated with induction of shock.
- Detection, evaluation, and management of preoperative anaemia in the elective orthopaedic surgical patient: NATA guidelines (2011)
- Previously undiagnosed anaemia is common in elective orthopaedic surgical patients and is associated with increased likelihood of blood transfusion and increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. A standardized approach for the detection, evaluation, and management of anaemia in this setting has been identified as an unmet medical need. A multidisciplinary panel of physicians was convened by the Network for Advancement of Transfusion Alternatives (NATA) with the aim of developing practice guidelines for the detection, evaluation, and management of preoperative anaemia in elective orthopaedic surgery. A systematic literature review and critical evaluation of the evidence was performed, and recommendations were formulated according to the method proposed by the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. We recommend that elective orthopaedic surgical patients have a haemoglobin (Hb) level determination 28 days before the scheduled surgical procedure if possible (Grade 1C). We suggest that the patient's target Hb before elective surgery be within the normal range, according to the World Health Organization criteria (Grade 2C). We recommend further laboratory testing to evaluate anaemia for nutritional deficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, and/or chronic inflammatory disease (Grade 1C). We recommend that nutritional deficiencies be treated (Grade 1C). We suggest that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents be used for anaemic patients in whom nutritional deficiencies have been ruled out, corrected, or both (Grade 2A). Anaemia should be viewed as a serious and treatable medical condition, rather than simply an abnormal laboratory value. Implementation of anaemia management in the elective orthopaedic surgery setting will improve patient outcomes.
- Hyperoxia reversibly alters oxygen consumption and metabolism (2012)
- AIM: Ventilation with pure oxygen (hyperoxic ventilation: HV) is thought to decrease whole body oxygen consumption (VO(2)). However, the validity and impact of this phenomenon remain ambiguous; until now, under hyperoxic conditions, VO(2) has only been determined by the reverse Fick principle, a method with inherent methodological problems. The goal of this study was to determine changes of VO(2), carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)), and the respiratory quotient (RQ) during normoxic and hyperoxic ventilation, using a metabolic monitor. METHODS: After providing signed informed consent and institutional acceptance, 14 healthy volunteers were asked to sequentially breathe room air, pure oxygen, and room air again. VO(2), VCO(2), RQ, and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by indirect calorimetry using a modified metabolic monitor during HV. RESULTS: HV reduced VO(2) from 3.4 (3.0/4.0) mL/kg/min to 2.8 (2.5/3.6) mL/kg/min (P < 0.05), whereas VCO(2) remained constant (3.0 [2.6/3.6] mL/kg/min versus 3.0 [2.6/3.5] mL/kg/min, n.s.). After onset of HV, RQ increased from 0.9 (0.8/0.9) to 1.1 (1.0/1.1). Most changes during HV were immediately reversed during subsequent normoxic ventilation. CONCLUSION: HV not only reduces VO(2), but also increases the respiratory quotient. This might be interpreted as an indicator of the substantial metabolic changes induced by HV. However, the impact of this phenomenon requires further study.
- The choice of the intravenous fluid influences the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia in anesthetized domestic pigs (2012)
- The correction of hypovolemia with acellular fluids results in acute normovolemic anemia. Whether the choice of the infusion fluid has an impact on the maintenance of oxygen (O2) supply during acute normovolemic anemia has not been investigated so far. Methods: Thirty-six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were hemodiluted to their physiological limit of anemia tolerance, reflected by the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hbcrit). Hbcrit was defined as the Hb-concentration corresponding with the onset of supply-dependency of total body O2-consumption (VO2). The hemodilution protocol was randomly performed with either Tetrastarch (6% HES 130/0.4, TS-group, n=9), Gelatin (3.5% urea-crosslinked polygeline, GEL-group, n=9), Hetastarch (6% HES 450/0.7, HS-group, n=9) or Ringer's solution (RS-group, n=9). The primary endpoint was the dimension of Hbcrit, secondary endpoints were parameters of central hemodynamics, O2-transport and tissue oxygenation. Results: In each animal, normovolemia was maintained throughout the protocol. Hbcrit was met at 3.7+/-0.6 g/dl (RS), 3.0+/-0.6 g/dl (HS P<0.05 vs. RS), 2.7+/-0.6 g/dl (GEL, P<0.05 vs. RS) and 2.1+/-0.4 g/dl (TS, P<0.05 vs. GEL, HS and RS). Hemodilution with RS resulted in a significant increase of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and a decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2), O2-extraction ratio was increased, when animals of the TS-, GEL- and HS-groups met their individual Hbcrit. Conclusions: The choice of the intravenous (i.v) fluid has an impact on the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia induced by acellular volume replacement. Third-generation Tetrastarch preparations (e.g., HES 130/0.4) appear most advantageous regarding maintenance of tissue oxygenation during progressive anemia. The underlying mechanism includes a lower degree of extravasation and favourable effects on microcirculatory function.