Year of publication
- 2009 (2) (remove)
- CXCL16 and oxLDL are induced in the onset of diabetic nephropathy (2009)
- Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Oxidative stress has been reported to be a major culprit of the disease and increased oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) immune complexes were found in patients with DN. In this study we present evidence, that CXCL16 is the main receptor in human podocytes mediating the uptake of oxLDL. In contrast, in primary tubular cells CD36 was mainly involved in the uptake of oxLDL. We further demonstrate that oxLDL down-regulated α3-integrin expression and increased the production of fibronectin in human podocytes. In addition, oxLDL uptake induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human podocytes. Inhibition of oxLDL uptake by CXCL16 blocking antibodies abrogated the fibronectin and ROS production and restored α3 integrin expression in human podocytes. Furthermore we present evidence that hyperglycaemic conditions increased CXCL16 and reduced ADAM10 expression in podocytes. Importantly, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice an early induction of CXCL16 was accompanied by higher levels of oxLDL. Finally immunofluorescence analysis in biopsies of patients with DN revealed increased glomerular CXCL16 expression, which was paralleled by high levels of oxLDL. In summary, regulation of CXCL16, ADAM10 and oxLDL expression may be an early event in the onset of DN and therefore all three proteins may represent potential new targets for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in DN.
- Nuclear translocation and signalling of L1-CAM in human carcinoma cells requires ADAM10 and presenilin/gamma-secretase activity (2009)
- L1-CAM (L1 cell-adhesion molecule), or more simply L1, plays an important role in the progression of human carcinoma. Overexpression promotes tumour-cell invasion and motility, growth in nude mice and tumour metastasis. It is feasible that L1-dependent signalling contributes to these effects. However, little is known about its mechanism in tumour cells. We reported previously that L1 is cleaved by ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and that the cytoplasmic part is essential for L1 function. Here we analysed more closely the role of proteolytic cleavage in L1-mediated nuclear signalling. Using OVMz carcinoma cells and L1-transfected cells as a model, we found that ADAM10-mediated cleavage of L1 proceeds in lipid raft and non-raft domains. The cleavage product, L1-32, is further processed by PS (presenilin)/gamma-secretase to release L1-ICD, an L1 intracellular domain of 28 kDa. Overexpression of dominantnegative PS1 or use of a specific gamma-secretase inhibitor leads to an accumulation of L1-32. Fluorescence and biochemical analysis revealed a nuclear localization for L1-ICD. Moreover, inhibition of ADAM10 and/or gamma-secretase blocks nuclear translocation of L1-ICD and L1-dependent gene regulation. Overexpression of recombinant L1-ICD mediates gene regulation in a similar manner to full-length L1. Our results establish for the first time that regulated proteolytic processing by ADAM10 and PS/gamma-secretase is essential for the nuclear signalling of L1 in human carcinoma cell lines. Key words: a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10), L1 cell-adhesion molecule (L1-CAM), nuclear translocation, presenilin (PS)/gamma-secretase activity, raft, signalling.