- Separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the phase transition from quark to hadron matter: Possible formation of strange quark matter in heavy-ion collisions (1987)
- We present a mechanism for the separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the deconfinement transition. For a net strangeness of zero in the total system, the population of s quarks is greatly enriched in the quark-gluon plasma, while the s¯ quarks drift into the hadronic phase. This separation could result in ‘‘strangelet’’ formation, i.e., metastable blobs of strange-quark matter, which could serve as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions. PACS: 25.70.Np, 12.38.Mh
- Creation of strange-quark-matter droplets as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1988)
- We demonstrate that strangeness separates in the Gibbs-phase coexistence between a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma and hadron matter, even at T=0. For finite temperatures this is due to the associated production of kaons (containing s¯ quarks) in the hadron phase while s quarks remain in the deconfined phase. The s-s¯ separation results in a strong enhancement of the s-quark abundance in the quark phase. This mechanism is further supported by cooling and net strangeness enrichment due to the prefreezeout evaporation of pions and K+, K0, which carry away entropy and anti- strangeness from the system. Metastable droplets (i.e., stable as far as weak interactions are not regarded) of strange-quark matter (‘‘strangelets’’) can thus be formed during the phase transition. Such cool, compact, long-lived clusters could be experimentally observed by their unusually small Z/A ratio (≤0.1–0.3). Even if the strange-quark-matter phase is not stable under strong interactions, it should be observable by the delayed correlated emission of several hyperons. This would serve as a unique signature for the transient formation of a quark-gluon plasma.
- Canonical suppression in microscopic transport models (2006)
- We demonstrate the occurrence of canonical suppression associated with the conservation of an U(1)-charge in current transport models. For this study a pion gas is simulated within two different transport approaches by incorporating inelastic and volume-limited collisions pi pi leftrightarrow K bar-K for the production of kaon pairs. Both descriptions can dynamically account for the suppression in the yields of rare strange particles in a limited box, being in full accordance with a canonical statistical description.
- Chemical equilibration due to heavy Hagedorn states (2004)
- A scenario of heavy resonances, called massive Hagedorn states, is proposed which exhibits a fast (t H 1 fm/c) chemical equilibration of (strange) baryons and anti-baryons at the QCD critical temperature Tc. For relativistic heavy ion collisions this scenario predicts that hadronization is followed by a brief expansion phase during which the equilibration rate is higher than the expansion rate, so that baryons and antibaryons reach chemical equilibrium before chemical freeze-out occurs. PACS-Nr.: 12.38.Mh
- Dynamic canonical suppression of strangeness in transport models (2005)
- It is investigated whether canonical suppression associated with the exact conservation of an U(1)-charge can be reproduced correctly by current transport models. Therefore a pion-gas having a volume-limited cross section for kaon production and annihilation is simulated within two different transport prescriptions for realizing the inelastic collisions. It is found that both models can indeed dynamically account for the canonical suppression in the yields of rare strange particles.