- Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA (2012)
- Ribosomal RNA undergoes various modifications to optimize ribosomal structure and expand the topological potential of RNA. The most common nucleotide modifications in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are pseudouridylations and 2'-O methylations (Nm), performed by H/ACA box snoRNAs and C/D box snoRNAs, respectively. Furthermore, rRNAs of both ribosomal subunits also contain various base modifications, which are catalysed by specific enzymes. These modifications cluster in highly conserved areas of the ribosome. Although most enzymes catalysing 18S rRNA base modifications have been identified, little is known about the 25S rRNA base modifications. The m(1)A modification at position 645 in Helix 25.1 is highly conserved in eukaryotes. Helix formation in this region of the 25S rRNA might be a prerequisite for a correct topological framework for 5.8S rRNA to interact with 25S rRNA. Surprisingly, we have identified ribosomal RNA processing protein 8 (Rrp8), a nucleolar Rossman-fold like methyltransferase, to carry out the m(1)A base modification at position 645, although Rrp8 was previously shown to be involved in A2 cleavage and 40S biogenesis. In addition, we were able to identify specific point mutations in Rrp8, which show that a reduced S-adenosyl-methionine binding influences the quality of the 60S subunit. This highlights the dual functionality of Rrp8 in the biogenesis of both subunits.
- Partial Methylation at Am100 in 18S rRNA of Baker's Yeast Reveals Ribosome Heterogeneity on the Level of Eukaryotic rRNA Modification (2014)
- Ribosome heterogeneity is of increasing biological significance and several examples have been described for multicellular and single cells organisms. In here we show for the first time a variation in ribose methylation within the 18S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, we could specifically demonstrate that a significant amount of S. cerevisiae ribosomes are not methylated at 2′-O-ribose of A100 residue in the 18S rRNA. Furthermore, using LC-UV-MS/MS of a respective 18S rRNA fragment, we could not only corroborate the partial methylation at A100, but could also quantify the methylated versus non-methylated A100 residue. Here, we exhibit that only 68% of A100 in the 18S rRNA of S.cerevisiae are methylated at 2′-O ribose sugar. Polysomes also contain a similar heterogeneity for methylated Am100, which shows that 40S ribosome subunits with and without Am100 participate in translation. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the corresponding methylation guide snoRNA gene SNR51 led to an increased A100 methylation, suggesting the cellular snR51 level to limit the extent of this modification. Partial rRNA modification demonstrates a new level of ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotic cells that might have substantial impact on regulation and fine-tuning of the translation process.
- Identification of novel methyltransferases, Bmt5 and Bmt6, responsible for the m3U methylations of 25S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2013)
- RNA contains various chemical modifications that expand its otherwise limited repertoire to mediate complex processes like translation and gene regulation. 25S rRNA of the large subunit of ribosome contains eight base methylations. Except for the methylation of uridine residues, methyltransferases for all other known base methylations have been recently identified. Here we report the identification of BMT5 (YIL096C) and BMT6 (YLR063W), two previously uncharacterized genes, to be responsible for m3U2634 and m3U2843 methylation of the 25S rRNA, respectively. These genes were identified by RP-HPLC screening of all deletion mutants of putative RNA methyltransferases and were confirmed by gene complementation and phenotypic characterization. Both proteins belong to Rossmann-fold-like methyltransferases and the point mutations in the S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding pocket abolish the methylation reaction. Bmt5 localizes in the nucleolus, whereas Bmt6 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we showed that 25S rRNA of yeast does not contain any m5U residues as previously predicted. With Bmt5 and Bmt6, all base methyltransferases of the 25S rRNA have been identified. This will facilitate the analyses of the significance of these modifications in ribosome function and cellular physiology.
- Identification of a novel methyltransferase, Bmt2, responsible for the N-1-methyl-adenosine base modification of 25S rRNA in "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (2013)
- The 25S rRNA of yeast contains several base modifications in the functionally important regions. The enzymes responsible for most of these base modifications remained unknown. Recently, we identified Rrp8 as a methyltransferase involved in m1A645 modification of 25S rRNA. Here, we discovered a previously uncharacterized gene YBR141C to be responsible for second m1A2142 modification of helix 65 of 25S rRNA. The gene was identified by reversed phase–HPLC screening of all deletion mutants of putative RNA methyltransferase and was confirmed by gene complementation and phenotypic characterization. Because of the function of its encoded protein, YBR141C was named BMT2 (base methyltransferase of 25S RNA). Helix 65 belongs to domain IV, which accounts for most of the intersubunit surface of the large subunit. The 3D structure prediction of Bmt2 supported it to be an Ado Met methyltransferase belonging to Rossmann fold superfamily. In addition, we demonstrated that the substitution of G180R in the S-adenosyl-l-methionine–binding motif drastically reduces the catalytic function of the protein in vivo. Furthermore, we analysed the significance of m1A2142 modification in ribosome synthesis and translation. Intriguingly, the loss of m1A2142 modification confers anisomycin and peroxide sensitivity to the cells. Our results underline the importance of RNA modifications in cellular physiology.