- The heterogeneity of disruptive behaviour disorders – implications for neurobiological research and treatment (2010)
- Disruptive behaviour disorders are reflected by a great variety of symptoms ranging from impulsive-hot tempered quarrels to purposeful and goal directed acts of cruelty. A growing body of data indicates that there are neurobiological factors that increase the risk for developing disruptive behaviour disorders. In this review, we give a broad overview of recent studies investigating physiological, neural, genetic factors, and specific neurotransmitter systems. We also discuss the impact of psychosocial risk and consider the effects of gene-environment interactions. Due to the heterogeneity of disruptive behaviour disorders, it is concluded that specific subtypes of disruptive behaviour should be considered both in terms their biological basis and in regard to specific treatment needs.
- Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents (2009)
- In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures involved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal-directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future. Keywords: aggression, violence, conduct disorder, fMRI, brain imaging, psychiatry