- Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (3) (remove)
- Timescales of multineuronal activity patterns reflect temporal structure of visual stimuli (2011)
- The investigation of distributed coding across multiple neurons in the cortex remains to this date a challenge. Our current understanding of collective encoding of information and the relevant timescales is still limited. Most results are restricted to disparate timescales, focused on either very fast, e.g., spike-synchrony, or slow timescales, e.g., firing rate. Here, we investigated systematically multineuronal activity patterns evolving on different timescales, spanning the whole range from spike-synchrony to mean firing rate. Using multi-electrode recordings from cat visual cortex, we show that cortical responses can be described as trajectories in a high-dimensional pattern space. Patterns evolve on a continuum of coexisting timescales that strongly relate to the temporal properties of stimuli. Timescales consistent with the time constants of neuronal membranes and fast synaptic transmission (5–20 ms) play a particularly salient role in encoding a large amount of stimulus-related information. Thus, to faithfully encode the properties of visual stimuli the brain engages multiple neurons into activity patterns evolving on multiple timescales.
- Membrane resonance enables stable and robust gamma oscillations (2012)
- Neuronal mechanisms underlying beta/gamma oscillations (20-80 Hz) are not completely understood. Here, we show that in vivo beta/gamma oscillations in the cat visual cortex sometimes exhibit remarkably stable frequency even when inputs fluctuate dramatically. Enhanced frequency stability is associated with stronger oscillations measured in individual units and larger power in the local field potential. Simulations of neuronal circuitry demonstrate that membrane properties of inhibitory interneurons strongly determine the characteristics of emergent oscillations. Exploration of networks containing either integrator or resonator inhibitory interneurons revealed that: (i) Resonance, as opposed to integration, promotes robust oscillations with large power and stable frequency via a mechanism called RING (Resonance INduced Gamma); resonance favors synchronization by reducing phase delays between interneurons and imposes bounds on oscillation cycle duration; (ii) Stability of frequency and robustness of the oscillation also depend on the relative timing of excitatory and inhibitory volleys within the oscillation cycle; (iii) RING can reproduce characteristics of both Pyramidal INterneuron Gamma (PING) and INterneuron Gamma (ING), transcending such classifications; (iv) In RING, robust gamma oscillations are promoted by slow but are impaired by fast inputs. Results suggest that interneuronal membrane resonance can be an important ingredient for generation of robust gamma oscillations having stable frequency.
- Emergence of beta/gamma oscillations: ING, PING, and what about RING? (2011)
- Poster presentation from Twentieth Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2011 Stockholm, Sweden. 23-28 July 2011. Background: Oscillatory activity in high-beta and gamma bands (20-80Hz) is known to play an important role in cortical processing being linked to cognitive processes and behavior. Beta/gamma oscillations are thought to emerge in local cortical circuits via two mechanisms: the interaction between excitatory principal cells and inhibitory interneurons – the pyramidal-interneuron gamma (PING) , and in networks of coupled inhibitory interneurons under tonic excitation – the interneuronal gamma (ING) . Experimental evidence underlines the important role of inhibitory interneurons and especially of the fast spiking (FS) interneurons [3,4]. We show in simulation that an important property of FS neurons, namely the membrane resonance (frequency preference), represents an additional mechanism – the resonance induced gamma (RING), i.e. modulation of oscillatory discharge by resonance. RING promotes frequency stability and enables oscillations in purely excitatory networks. Methods: Local circuits were modeled with small world networks of 80% excitatory and 20% inhibitory neuron populations interconnected in small-world topology by realistic conductance-based synapses. Neuron populations were leaky integrate and fire (LIF) or Izhikevich resonator (RES) neurons. We also tested networks of purely inhibitory and purely excitatory RES neurons. Networks were stimulated with miniature postsynaptic potentials (MINIs)  and with low frequency sinusoidal (0.5 Hz) input that mimics the effect of gratings passing trough the visual field. The activity was calibrated to match recordings from cat visual cortex (firing rate, oscillatory activity). Results: Sinusoidal input modulates network oscillation frequency. This effect is most prominent in IF excitatory and IF inhibitory (IF-IF) networks and less prominent (about 4 times) in IF-RES or RES-IF networks where frequency remains relatively stable. The most stable frequency was observed in networks of pure resonators (RES-RES, None-RES, RES-None). Interestingly, purely excitatory RES networks (RES-None) were also able to exhibit oscillations through RING. By contrast purely excitatory or inhibitory IF networks (IF-None, None-IF) were not able to express oscillations under these conditions, matching experimental parameters. Conclusions: In both PING and ING, adding membrane resonance to principal cells or inhibitory interneurons stabilizes network oscillation frequency via the RING mechanism. Notably, in networks of purely excitatory networks, where ING and PING are not defined, oscillations can emerge via the RING mechanism if membrane resonance is expressed. Thus, RING appears as a potentially important mechanism for promoting stable network oscillations.