Year of publication
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- Distribution of the American milliped genus Boraria Chamberlin, 1943: Introductions of B. stricta (Brölemann, 1896) in New York and B. infesta (Chamberlin, 1918) in Connecticut; indigenous occurrence of B. profuga (Causey, 1955) in Louisiana (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae). (2011)
- The southern Appalachian millipeds Boraria stricta (Brölemann, 1896) and B. infesta (Chamberlin, 1918) (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) have become established in Westchester Co., New York, and Hartford Co., Connecticut, respectively. Only three individuals are available for the latter, but B. stricta has established a reproducing population in southern New York state. This species is also recorded from Bland Co., Virginia, in the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province. Boraria profuga (Causey, 1955) comprises two allopatric populations, one in Montgomery Co., Arkansas, and the other in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana. Distributional records and gonopod drawings are presented for these species plus B. deturkiana (Causey, 1942).
- The first vouchered milliped records for Prince Edward Island and additional new records from the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) (2011)
- Four milliped species, substantiated by preserved voucher samples, are reported from Prince Edward Island, Canada. All are introduced European species that now occur widely in both Canada and the United States, and the panglobal Asian paradoxosomatid, Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), is listed as probable. Choneiulus palmatus (Némec, 1895) (Julida: Blaniulidae) is newly recorded from New Brunswick, and four representatives of the Julidae are cited from Nova Scotia. Discovery of Cylindroiulus punctatus (Leach, 1815) (Julidae) in this province constitutes the second record from both Canada and North America, the other being in Newfoundland.
- Atlas of myriapod biogeography. I. Indigenous ordinal and supra-ordinal distributions in the Diplopoda: Perspectives on taxon origins and ages, and a hypothesis on the origin and early evolution of the class (2011)
- The biogeographic significance of Diplopoda is substantiated by 50 maps documenting indigenous occurrences of the 16 orders, the three Spirostreptida s. l. suborders – Cambalidea, Epinannolenidea, Spirostreptidea – and all higher taxa including Diplopoda itself. The class is indigenous to all continents except Antarctica and islands/archipelagos in all temperate and tropical seas and oceans except the Arctic; it ranges from Kodiak Island and the northern Alaskan Panhandle, United States (USA), southern Hudson Bay, Canada, and near or north of the Arctic Circle in Iceland, continental Scandinavia, and Siberia to southern “mainland” Argentina, the southern tips of Africa and Tasmania, and Campbell Island, subantarctic New Zealand. The vast, global distribution is interrupted by sizeable, poorly- or unsampled areas including the Great Basin, USA; the Atacama Desert region of Chile and neighboring countries; southern South American islands; the central Kalahari and Sahara deserts; the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, and all of north-central and western China; from north of the Caspian Sea, Russia, to central Kazakhstan; and the “Outback” of central Australia. Five Arabian countries lack both samples and published records of indigenous diplopods – Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates – as do Turks and Caicos, in the New World, and Mauritania and possibly Egypt, Africa. New records, including the first for Chilognatha from Botswana and the first specific localities from Northern Territory, Australia, are cited in the Appendix. Increased emphasis on mappings in taxonomic research is warranted along with investigations of insular “species swarms” that constitute a microcosm of the early evolution of the class. The largest “species swarm” in the Diplopoda is Diplopoda itself!
- Distribution of Abacion texense (Loomis, 1937), the only milliped species traversing the Rio Grande, Mississippi, and Pecos rivers (Callipodida: Abacionidae) (2010)
- Localities are documented for the milliped Abacion texense (Loomis, 1837) (Callipodida: Abacionidae) whose distribution forms both the northern and southern ordinal limits in the Western Hemisphere. The westernmost component of Abacion Rafinesque, 1820, A. texense is the only milliped species whose range spans the Mississippi and Pecos rivers and the Rio Grande. Distribution extremes are in Hennepin County (Co.), Minnesota, in the north; Terrell and Potter cos., Texas, in the west; Alcorn Co., Mississippi, in the east; and southwestern Tamaulipas, Mexico, in the south. Occurrences are projected for southeastern South Dakota, northwestern Alabama, and the southwestern periphery of Tennessee. The type series of A. texense consists solely of the male holotype, so a neotype will be needed if this individual is ever lost, because no paratypes were officially designated.
- The milliped families Spirostreptidae (Spirostreptida) and Paradoxosomatidae (Polydesmida) in the Middle East; first records of the Diplopoda from Saudi Arabia (2009)
- The class Diplopoda, represented by the families Spirostreptidae (Spirostreptida) and Paradoxosomatidae (Polydesmida), is recorded from Saudi Arabia for the first time. Archispirostreptus transmarinus Hoffman, 1965 (Spirostreptidae) inhabits the Jabal Al-Hijaz Mountains in the southwest, and the Paradoxosomatidae, represented by an unidentifiable, indigenous female, occurs in a “wadi” in the center of the country. Other Middle Eastern familial records are documented, and occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula are mapped. Males, necessary to identify the paradoxosomatid, may be encountered if samplings are timed to coincide with seasonal rains.
- The milliped family Tingupidae (Chordeumatida) on Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA, a geographically remote record of indigenous Diplopoda (2009)
- With documentation of an unidentifiable adult female and juvenile Tingupidae (Chordeumatida), Kodiak Island, Alaska, becomes the westernmost indigenous diplopod locality in North America including continental islands. The northernmost and most proximate locality, Yakutat, lies ca. 935 mi (1,496 km) to the eastnortheast, while Haines, the type locality of Tingupa tlingitorum Shear and Shelley, some 1,196 mi (1,914 km) in this direction, is the most proximate familial site. Kodiak is also one of the most remote indigenous milliped localities in the Pacific, the most proximate ones to the west and south, Kamchatka, Russia, and the Hawaiian Islands, United States, being over 3,300 mi (5, 280 km) distant. Tingupidae is recorded for the first time from Canada excluding the Queen Charlotte Islands, and geographically remote, ostensibly indigenous records from the North Pacific Ocean and environs are tabulated.
- The centipede Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, new to the Hawaiian fauna, and potential representatives of the "S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex" (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae: Scolopendrinae) (2014)
- Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, is documented from Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, the fi rst record of this anthropochoric chilopod from both the archipelago and state. Hawaii thus becomes the second American state to harbor the species, the other being Florida, where an individual has been taken in Jacksonville, Duval County. Meristic and morphological data are presented for three Hawaiian specimens. At least two other species of Scolopendra, both introduced, occur on these islands: S. polymorpha Wood, 1861, known only from one specimen from Oahu, and one or more representatives of the “S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex,” which is widespread and even inhabits Midway Atoll.
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., a family of western North American millipeds: Hypotheses on origins and affinities; tribal elevations; rediagnoses of Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both Shelley, 1996; and description of D. hedini, n. sp. (Callipodida: Schizopetalidea) (2014)
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., elevated from Tynommatinae, is established as a schizopetalidean family encompassing the western North American callipodidans previously assigned to the Mediterranean Schizopetalidae. It is considered a valid taxon despite somewhat anatomically dissimilar subfamilies, and Colactidinae, Texophoninae, Diactidinae, and Aspidiophoninae constitute tribal elevations and additional new statuses. With a subbasal telopodal prefemoral process, Diactis hedini, n. sp., requires rediagnoses of all three diactidine genera, Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both by Shelley, 1996, and suggests that telopodal branches ‘B’ in congeners and Florea represent distal relocations of the process along the stem. Similarities in the sizes and shapes of the pleurotergal carinae suggest a sister-group relationship with the other, and partly sympatric, New World family, Abacionidae, which is supported by gonopodal similarities between Colactidinae and Abacion Rafi nesque, 1820. The Western Interior Seaway of the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era, ~141–66 million years ago, appears to have fueled divergence by isolating “proto-abacionid stock” in “Appalachia,” the Eastern North American land mass, which has subsequently spread well into previously inundated areas. The allopatric position of Texophoninae, on the Gulf Coast of south Texas around 1,136 km (710 mi) east of the most proximate familial records, is attributed to this waterway, which eradicated faunal linkages with “proto-Tynommatidae” in “Laramidia,” the Western North American land mass. Texophoninae probably survived the Cretaceous on insular refugia; however, it is rarely encountered anymore and seems destined for imminent extinction. Representatives of the east-Asian families, Caspiopetalidae, Paracortinidae, and Sinocallipodidae, also possess demarcated pleurotergal crests and, implausible though it seems, may share ancestry with the North American taxa vis-à-vis the “Asiamerica” and or “Boreotropic” concepts.
- Distribution of the centipede Scolopocryptops sexspinosus (Say) in Alaska and Canada (Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae) (1992)
- Specific Alaskan and Canadian localities are recorded for the chilopod Scolopocryptops sexspinosus (Say) (Cryptopidae), the only indigenous Nearctic scolopendromorph species occurring north of the lower 48 states. It occurs west of the crest of the Coast Range in British Columbia, extending northward to the southernmost islands of Alaska, and is recorded for the first time from eastern Canada, from Niagara Gorge, Ontario. Reports of S. rubiginosus Koch from southern Alaska are based on a misidentification of S. sexspinosus, and records from the north-central United States are too distant from the international border for it to be plausible for Manitoba and western Ontario. This centipede does not occur along the Pacific Coast and is improbable for any other part of Canada.
- The milliped genus Orophe Chamberlin (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) (1993)
- The milliped genus Orophe, characterized by long, twisted gonopodal telopodites with short subequal distal elements, is comprised of two allopatric species.