Year of publication
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., a family of western North American millipeds: Hypotheses on origins and affinities; tribal elevations; rediagnoses of Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both Shelley, 1996; and description of D. hedini, n. sp. (Callipodida: Schizopetalidea) (2014)
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., elevated from Tynommatinae, is established as a schizopetalidean family encompassing the western North American callipodidans previously assigned to the Mediterranean Schizopetalidae. It is considered a valid taxon despite somewhat anatomically dissimilar subfamilies, and Colactidinae, Texophoninae, Diactidinae, and Aspidiophoninae constitute tribal elevations and additional new statuses. With a subbasal telopodal prefemoral process, Diactis hedini, n. sp., requires rediagnoses of all three diactidine genera, Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both by Shelley, 1996, and suggests that telopodal branches ‘B’ in congeners and Florea represent distal relocations of the process along the stem. Similarities in the sizes and shapes of the pleurotergal carinae suggest a sister-group relationship with the other, and partly sympatric, New World family, Abacionidae, which is supported by gonopodal similarities between Colactidinae and Abacion Rafi nesque, 1820. The Western Interior Seaway of the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era, ~141–66 million years ago, appears to have fueled divergence by isolating “proto-abacionid stock” in “Appalachia,” the Eastern North American land mass, which has subsequently spread well into previously inundated areas. The allopatric position of Texophoninae, on the Gulf Coast of south Texas around 1,136 km (710 mi) east of the most proximate familial records, is attributed to this waterway, which eradicated faunal linkages with “proto-Tynommatidae” in “Laramidia,” the Western North American land mass. Texophoninae probably survived the Cretaceous on insular refugia; however, it is rarely encountered anymore and seems destined for imminent extinction. Representatives of the east-Asian families, Caspiopetalidae, Paracortinidae, and Sinocallipodidae, also possess demarcated pleurotergal crests and, implausible though it seems, may share ancestry with the North American taxa vis-à-vis the “Asiamerica” and or “Boreotropic” concepts.
- The Milliped order Glomeridesmida (Diplopoda: Pentazonia: Limacomorpha) in Oceania, the East Indies, and southeastern Asia; first records from Palau, the Philippines, Vanuatu, New Britain, the Island of New Guinea, Cambodia, Thailand, and Borneo and Sulawesi, Indonesia (2011)
- The taxonomically neglected milliped order Glomeridesmida and family Glomeridesmidae (infraclass Pentazonia, superorder Limacomorpha) inhabit 21, rather than seven, regions of the world, being newly recorded from Thailand; Cambodia; the Republics of Palau, the Philippines, and Vanuatu; New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago; the Island of New Guinea (both West Papua [formerly Irian Jaya], Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea); and Sulawesi and Borneo, Indonesia. Occurrence in Fiji is confirmed with two additional samples, and discovery is predicted in southern China, Myanmar, and perhaps Madagascar. Coupled with published localities, these records suggest subcontinuous (super)ordinal and familial ranges extending some 12,480 km (7,800 mi) southeastward from northwestern Thailand to Fiji. Though infrequently encountered, the taxa may actually be diverse and abundant within this area, which encompasses all of the Indochina and Malay peninsulas, the Philippines, Palau, the Island of Borneo and Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon and Santa Cruz Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji; it excludes Taiwan, Australia, New Caledonia, and the Loyalty Islands. The paucity of preserved individuals probably results from their dark pigmentations and minute sizes, adults being <6.5 mm long; Berlese extractions and sieved litter techniques are recommended over hand collecting. Glomeridesmida are much more continuous, widespread, and abundant in the “east” than previously believed and clearly do not comprise a minor, insignificant taxon. The first glomeridesmidan photos are published.
- The milliped genus Orophe Chamberlin (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) (1993)
- The milliped genus Orophe, characterized by long, twisted gonopodal telopodites with short subequal distal elements, is comprised of two allopatric species.
- The milliped genus Euryurus Koch, 1847 (Polydesmida: Euryuridae) west of the Mississippi River; occurrence of E. leachii (Gray, 1832) on Crowley’s Ridge, Arkansas (2012)
- The milliped genus Euryurus Koch, 1847, and the species, E. leachii (Gray, 1832) (Polydesmida: Euryuridae), are recorded from three sites on the northern part of Crowley’s Ridge (Cross, Lee, and Poinsett counties), Arkansas, where the only prior familial records are of Auturus evides (Bollman, 1887). Coupled with the published locality of E. leachii in Phillips Co., at the southern extremity of the Ridge, the only known occurrences of both the genus and species in Arkansas and west of the Mississippi River are in this physiographic feature. The Arkansas population is geographically peripheral but anatomically intermediate between the two recognized subspecies, E. l. leachii and E. l. fraternus Hoffman, 1978, and we do not assign it to a race. Molecular investigations seem necessary to resolve relationships in the “E. leachii complex.”
- The milliped family Tingupidae (Chordeumatida) on Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA, a geographically remote record of indigenous Diplopoda (2009)
- With documentation of an unidentifiable adult female and juvenile Tingupidae (Chordeumatida), Kodiak Island, Alaska, becomes the westernmost indigenous diplopod locality in North America including continental islands. The northernmost and most proximate locality, Yakutat, lies ca. 935 mi (1,496 km) to the eastnortheast, while Haines, the type locality of Tingupa tlingitorum Shear and Shelley, some 1,196 mi (1,914 km) in this direction, is the most proximate familial site. Kodiak is also one of the most remote indigenous milliped localities in the Pacific, the most proximate ones to the west and south, Kamchatka, Russia, and the Hawaiian Islands, United States, being over 3,300 mi (5, 280 km) distant. Tingupidae is recorded for the first time from Canada excluding the Queen Charlotte Islands, and geographically remote, ostensibly indigenous records from the North Pacific Ocean and environs are tabulated.
- The milliped families Spirostreptidae (Spirostreptida) and Paradoxosomatidae (Polydesmida) in the Middle East; first records of the Diplopoda from Saudi Arabia (2009)
- The class Diplopoda, represented by the families Spirostreptidae (Spirostreptida) and Paradoxosomatidae (Polydesmida), is recorded from Saudi Arabia for the first time. Archispirostreptus transmarinus Hoffman, 1965 (Spirostreptidae) inhabits the Jabal Al-Hijaz Mountains in the southwest, and the Paradoxosomatidae, represented by an unidentifiable, indigenous female, occurs in a “wadi” in the center of the country. Other Middle Eastern familial records are documented, and occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula are mapped. Males, necessary to identify the paradoxosomatid, may be encountered if samplings are timed to coincide with seasonal rains.
- The first vouchered milliped records for Prince Edward Island and additional new records from the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) (2011)
- Four milliped species, substantiated by preserved voucher samples, are reported from Prince Edward Island, Canada. All are introduced European species that now occur widely in both Canada and the United States, and the panglobal Asian paradoxosomatid, Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), is listed as probable. Choneiulus palmatus (Némec, 1895) (Julida: Blaniulidae) is newly recorded from New Brunswick, and four representatives of the Julidae are cited from Nova Scotia. Discovery of Cylindroiulus punctatus (Leach, 1815) (Julidae) in this province constitutes the second record from both Canada and North America, the other being in Newfoundland.
- The centipede Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, new to the Hawaiian fauna, and potential representatives of the "S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex" (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae: Scolopendrinae) (2014)
- Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, is documented from Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, the fi rst record of this anthropochoric chilopod from both the archipelago and state. Hawaii thus becomes the second American state to harbor the species, the other being Florida, where an individual has been taken in Jacksonville, Duval County. Meristic and morphological data are presented for three Hawaiian specimens. At least two other species of Scolopendra, both introduced, occur on these islands: S. polymorpha Wood, 1861, known only from one specimen from Oahu, and one or more representatives of the “S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex,” which is widespread and even inhabits Midway Atoll.
- Parajulid milliped studies V. The genera Pseudojulus Bollman and Arvechambus Causey (Parajulinae: Aniulini) (2002)
- The parajulid milliped genus Pseudojulus Bollman comprises four species: P. obtectus (Bollman), P.paynei (Hoffman), n. comb., andP. carolinensis andP. coastalis, new species; Arvechambus Causey comprises two species, A. hummi and A. weemsi, both by Causey. Georgiulus Hoffman is placed in synonymy under Fseudojulus; G. hubrichti Hoffman is placed under P. pay/wi; andA. australis Causey is placed under A. hummi. The genera are sympatric in north Florida and southern Georgia, but Pseudojulus extends northward to coastal South Carolina and southcentral North Carolina, and westward to Alabama west of Mobile Bay. Both genera belong to the Aniulini and possess unique features; in Pseudojulus the anterior gonopod coxae are fused into a "shelf' on the dorsal surface ofthe complex that extends ventrad along the caudal margin and possesses a pair of posterior median syncoxallobes or laminas of varying lengths and configurations. Arvechambus exhibits a suite of apomorphies and is sister to the rest of the tribe collectively: the 8th sternum possesses elevated lateral lobes that overhang the sides ofthe gonopodal aperture; the 7th pleurotergite possesses lobes that also overlie the sides of the aperture; the anterior gonopods lack lateral syncoxal processes, the coxal lobes, much larger than in other tribal genera, arise laterad and obscure part of the telopodite in anterior view, and the telopodite is elongate rather than clavate; and the 2nd pleurotergite in females possesses lobes that overhang and effectively close the cyphopodal aperture.
- Occurrence of the milliped, Stenodesmus tuobitus (Chamberlin), west of the Rio Grande (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) (1992)
- New records of the xystodesmid diplopod Stenodesmus tuobitus (Chamberlin) extend its range and those of the family and suborder Chelodesmidea into southwestern New Mexico, west of the Rio Grande. They confirm that it inhabits arid juniper environments at relatively low elevations as well as moist deciduous fir forests at high elevations, thereby lending credence to past records from the former habitat in Lincoln County. Discovery of the milliped in neighboring mountain ranges to the north and west is now likely, with the distant possibility that it may occur in eastern Arizona.