Year of publication
- A third locality for the milliped Mitocybe auriportae Cook and Loomis, 1928 (Platydesmida: Andrognathidae) (2012)
- With the discovery of Mitocybe auriportae Cook and Loomis, 1928 (Platydesmida: Andrognathidae) in Alameda County (Co.), east of San Francisco Bay, a potential overall distribution in coastal California is projected based on those of partly congruent diplopods. The area extends from northern Mendocino to central Monterey cos. and inland to central Lake, Yolo, and Santa Clara cos.
- Millipeds from the eastern Dakotas and western Minnesota, USA, with an account of Pseudopolydesmus serratus (Say, 1821) (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae); first published records from six states and the District of Columbia (2012)
- The diplopod orders Callipodida and Polydesmida, and their respective families Abacionidae and Xystodesmidae, are initially recorded from South Dakota as is Polydesmidae from North Dakota. Other new records of indigenous taxa include Abacion Rafinesque, 1820/A. texense (Loomis, 1937) and Pleuroloma/P. flavipes, both by Rafinesque, 1820, from South Dakota, and Pseudopolydesmus Attems, 1898/P. serratus (Say, 1821) from Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia. New records of Aniulus garius Chamberlin, 1912, A. (Hakiulus) d. diversifrons (Wood, 1867), and Oriulus venustus (Wood, 1864) (Julida: Parajulidae) are provided for western Minnesota and/or eastern North Dakota. Published records from these states are summarized, and the introduced taxa, Julidae/Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894/C. caeruleocinctus (Wood, 1864) and Paradoxosomatidae/Oxidus Cook, 1911/O. gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), are newly recorded from the Dakotas. The distribution of P. serratus, which extends from Maine to South Carolina and the Florida panhandle, west to Texas, and north to Fargo, North Dakota is described and discussed. This distribution exhibits a prominent southeastern lacuna which we hypothesize suggests replacement by younger, more successful species, as postulated for a similar distributional gap in Scytonotus granulatus (Say, 1821).
- First recorded introduction of the milliped order Stemmiulida (Eugnatha: Nematophora): Potential establishment in Florida, USA, and new records from Mexico; northward range extension into southern Tamaulipas (2012)
- Based on two “uni-ocellate” females, the world’s first introductions of the milliped order Stemmiulida are recorded from Florida, United States (US). One individual was collected in 1976 in Gainesville, Alachua County (Co.)., in northcentral peninsular Florida, and the other was taken in 1991 some 408 km (255 mi) to the south-southeast in Pompano Beach, Broward Co. The absence of further individuals and additional samples suggests that the introductions did not result in viable populations, and stemmiulidans are not presently established in the state; the Gainesville site was reinvestigated in 2012 without finding additional specimens. New records from Mexico include the first from Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Yucatan, San Luis Potosí, and Tamaulipas states, with the northernmost ordinal locality now becoming Rancho del Cielo, northwest of Gómez Farias, in the last. A northward range expansion of about 460 km (288 mi) from the previous limit, Xalapa, Veracruz, the site lies a mere 40 km (25 mi) south of the Tropic of Cancer and only some 320 km (200 mi) south of the Rio Grande and the US border at McAllen, Hidalgo Co., Texas. Indigenous Stemmiulida are not expected in the forested Rio Grande Valley of southernmost Texas, but their occurrence in the adjoining Mexican state renders such a discovery more plausible than before.
- The centipede Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, new to the Hawaiian fauna, and potential representatives of the "S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex" (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae: Scolopendrinae) (2014)
- Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, is documented from Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, the fi rst record of this anthropochoric chilopod from both the archipelago and state. Hawaii thus becomes the second American state to harbor the species, the other being Florida, where an individual has been taken in Jacksonville, Duval County. Meristic and morphological data are presented for three Hawaiian specimens. At least two other species of Scolopendra, both introduced, occur on these islands: S. polymorpha Wood, 1861, known only from one specimen from Oahu, and one or more representatives of the “S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex,” which is widespread and even inhabits Midway Atoll.
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., a family of western North American millipeds: Hypotheses on origins and affinities; tribal elevations; rediagnoses of Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both Shelley, 1996; and description of D. hedini, n. sp. (Callipodida: Schizopetalidea) (2014)
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., elevated from Tynommatinae, is established as a schizopetalidean family encompassing the western North American callipodidans previously assigned to the Mediterranean Schizopetalidae. It is considered a valid taxon despite somewhat anatomically dissimilar subfamilies, and Colactidinae, Texophoninae, Diactidinae, and Aspidiophoninae constitute tribal elevations and additional new statuses. With a subbasal telopodal prefemoral process, Diactis hedini, n. sp., requires rediagnoses of all three diactidine genera, Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both by Shelley, 1996, and suggests that telopodal branches ‘B’ in congeners and Florea represent distal relocations of the process along the stem. Similarities in the sizes and shapes of the pleurotergal carinae suggest a sister-group relationship with the other, and partly sympatric, New World family, Abacionidae, which is supported by gonopodal similarities between Colactidinae and Abacion Rafi nesque, 1820. The Western Interior Seaway of the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era, ~141–66 million years ago, appears to have fueled divergence by isolating “proto-abacionid stock” in “Appalachia,” the Eastern North American land mass, which has subsequently spread well into previously inundated areas. The allopatric position of Texophoninae, on the Gulf Coast of south Texas around 1,136 km (710 mi) east of the most proximate familial records, is attributed to this waterway, which eradicated faunal linkages with “proto-Tynommatidae” in “Laramidia,” the Western North American land mass. Texophoninae probably survived the Cretaceous on insular refugia; however, it is rarely encountered anymore and seems destined for imminent extinction. Representatives of the east-Asian families, Caspiopetalidae, Paracortinidae, and Sinocallipodidae, also possess demarcated pleurotergal crests and, implausible though it seems, may share ancestry with the North American taxa vis-à-vis the “Asiamerica” and or “Boreotropic” concepts.
- Expanded concept of the milliped family Spirobolidae (Diplopoda: Spirobolida: Spirobolidea): Proposals of Aztecolini n. tribe and Floridobolinae/ini and Tylobolini n. stats.; (re)descriptions of Floridobolus and F. penneri, both Causey, 1957, and F. orini n. sp.; hypotheses on origins and affinities (2014)
- The endemic Floridian milliped genus, Floridobolus Causey, 1957, more closely related to tylobolinines in the western United States (US), Mexico, and Guatemala than syntopic spirobolines, is incorporated into Spirobolidae (Spirobolida: Spirobolidea). With taxonomic priority by one year, its monotypic family is reduced to Floridobolinae, n. stat., comprising Floridobolini and Tylobolini, n. stats., the counterpart to Spirobolinae, comprising Spirobolini and Aztecolini, n. tribe; relationships are Floridobolini + (Tylobolini + (Aztecolini + Spirobolini)). Like F. penneri Causey, 1957, 208 km (130 mi) to the south in the Lake Wales Ridge, Polk and Highlands counties (cos.), F. orini n. sp., inhabits “Big Scrub” environments in the Ocala National Forest, Marion Co. Biogeographic reconstructions, compatible with broader hypotheses on the class’ evolutionary history, indicate that, from a presumptive source area in northern Mexico where the subfamilies overlap, spirobolid stock penetrated the “proto-US” four times, once per tribe, before the Western Interior Seaway developed in the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era. Three expansions headed northeastward into future “Appalachia,” from which taxa spread southward as the Seaway receded. Floridobolini, the fi rst invader, had to be in “proto-Georgia” and positioned to penetrate Florida when the sand dunes that comprise the “Central Highlands” emerged from the sea in the Oligocene (Cenozoic), ~25 mya. As sea levels rose and fell, the dunes fragmented into islands and the subcontinuous Floridobolus population was partitioned. The southernmost became F. penneri; F. orini inhabited a northern island; and a graduate student is investigating other insular remnants for additional species. Shortly after Floridobolini began spreading, Hiltonius/ Tylobolini arose and expanded both southward to Guatemala and northwestward to California; Tylobolus Cook, 1904, diverged in the latter area and dispersed northward to Washington and eastward to Utah/Arizona. The third invader, and the second to disperse northeastward, was Aztecolini, which probably eradicated Floridobolini from some of its established range and was partitioned into Mexican (Aztecolus Chamberlin, 1943) and US (Chicobolus Chamberlin, 1947) taxa by the Seaway. The fi nal invader, Spirobolini, dispersed northwestward and northeastward to both the Pacifi c and Atlantic coasts; instead of Trans-Beringia, we prefer penetration of the Asian part of “Asiamerica,” when it temporarily formed during the Cretaceous, to explain the Mongolian fossil genus, Gobiulus Dzik, 1975, herein assigned to Tylobolini, and the occurrence of Spirobolus Brandt, 1833, in China and Taiwan today. In the east, Narceus Rafi nesque, 1820, spread across Appalachia, eradicated most remaining populations of Floridobolus and Chicobolus, and expanded to Maine and Québec after retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation. Chicobolus and Narceus also penetrated earliest Florida; the former established itself in the Central Highlands, spread through the widening peninsula as sea levels fell, and remained on insular refugia when waters rose. Apparently fueled by the different Floridian environments, Narceus underwent time-consuming speciation; consequently, Floridobolus and Chicobolus still survive on the peninsula, and an allopatric population of the latter inhabits coastal South Carolina. However, N. gordanus (Chamberlin, 1943) occurs syntopically with both in peninsular Florida and may be actively eradicating them from their last stronghold. Trigoniulus niger, takahasii, and segmentatus, all by Takakuwa, 1940, are removed from Spirobolidae and returned toTrigoniulidae (Trigoniulidea). New records in the Appendix include the fi rst of Aztecolus from Durango and Jalisco, Mexico.