Year of publication
- The centipede Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, new to the Hawaiian fauna, and potential representatives of the "S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex" (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae: Scolopendrinae) (2014)
- Scolopendra morsitans L., 1758, is documented from Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, the fi rst record of this anthropochoric chilopod from both the archipelago and state. Hawaii thus becomes the second American state to harbor the species, the other being Florida, where an individual has been taken in Jacksonville, Duval County. Meristic and morphological data are presented for three Hawaiian specimens. At least two other species of Scolopendra, both introduced, occur on these islands: S. polymorpha Wood, 1861, known only from one specimen from Oahu, and one or more representatives of the “S. subspinipes Leach, 1815, complex,” which is widespread and even inhabits Midway Atoll.
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., a family of western North American millipeds: Hypotheses on origins and affinities; tribal elevations; rediagnoses of Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both Shelley, 1996; and description of D. hedini, n. sp. (Callipodida: Schizopetalidea) (2014)
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., elevated from Tynommatinae, is established as a schizopetalidean family encompassing the western North American callipodidans previously assigned to the Mediterranean Schizopetalidae. It is considered a valid taxon despite somewhat anatomically dissimilar subfamilies, and Colactidinae, Texophoninae, Diactidinae, and Aspidiophoninae constitute tribal elevations and additional new statuses. With a subbasal telopodal prefemoral process, Diactis hedini, n. sp., requires rediagnoses of all three diactidine genera, Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both by Shelley, 1996, and suggests that telopodal branches ‘B’ in congeners and Florea represent distal relocations of the process along the stem. Similarities in the sizes and shapes of the pleurotergal carinae suggest a sister-group relationship with the other, and partly sympatric, New World family, Abacionidae, which is supported by gonopodal similarities between Colactidinae and Abacion Rafi nesque, 1820. The Western Interior Seaway of the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era, ~141–66 million years ago, appears to have fueled divergence by isolating “proto-abacionid stock” in “Appalachia,” the Eastern North American land mass, which has subsequently spread well into previously inundated areas. The allopatric position of Texophoninae, on the Gulf Coast of south Texas around 1,136 km (710 mi) east of the most proximate familial records, is attributed to this waterway, which eradicated faunal linkages with “proto-Tynommatidae” in “Laramidia,” the Western North American land mass. Texophoninae probably survived the Cretaceous on insular refugia; however, it is rarely encountered anymore and seems destined for imminent extinction. Representatives of the east-Asian families, Caspiopetalidae, Paracortinidae, and Sinocallipodidae, also possess demarcated pleurotergal crests and, implausible though it seems, may share ancestry with the North American taxa vis-à-vis the “Asiamerica” and or “Boreotropic” concepts.
- Expanded concept of the milliped family Spirobolidae (Diplopoda: Spirobolida: Spirobolidea): Proposals of Aztecolini n. tribe and Floridobolinae/ini and Tylobolini n. stats.; (re)descriptions of Floridobolus and F. penneri, both Causey, 1957, and F. orini n. sp.; hypotheses on origins and affinities (2014)
- The endemic Floridian milliped genus, Floridobolus Causey, 1957, more closely related to tylobolinines in the western United States (US), Mexico, and Guatemala than syntopic spirobolines, is incorporated into Spirobolidae (Spirobolida: Spirobolidea). With taxonomic priority by one year, its monotypic family is reduced to Floridobolinae, n. stat., comprising Floridobolini and Tylobolini, n. stats., the counterpart to Spirobolinae, comprising Spirobolini and Aztecolini, n. tribe; relationships are Floridobolini + (Tylobolini + (Aztecolini + Spirobolini)). Like F. penneri Causey, 1957, 208 km (130 mi) to the south in the Lake Wales Ridge, Polk and Highlands counties (cos.), F. orini n. sp., inhabits “Big Scrub” environments in the Ocala National Forest, Marion Co. Biogeographic reconstructions, compatible with broader hypotheses on the class’ evolutionary history, indicate that, from a presumptive source area in northern Mexico where the subfamilies overlap, spirobolid stock penetrated the “proto-US” four times, once per tribe, before the Western Interior Seaway developed in the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era. Three expansions headed northeastward into future “Appalachia,” from which taxa spread southward as the Seaway receded. Floridobolini, the fi rst invader, had to be in “proto-Georgia” and positioned to penetrate Florida when the sand dunes that comprise the “Central Highlands” emerged from the sea in the Oligocene (Cenozoic), ~25 mya. As sea levels rose and fell, the dunes fragmented into islands and the subcontinuous Floridobolus population was partitioned. The southernmost became F. penneri; F. orini inhabited a northern island; and a graduate student is investigating other insular remnants for additional species. Shortly after Floridobolini began spreading, Hiltonius/ Tylobolini arose and expanded both southward to Guatemala and northwestward to California; Tylobolus Cook, 1904, diverged in the latter area and dispersed northward to Washington and eastward to Utah/Arizona. The third invader, and the second to disperse northeastward, was Aztecolini, which probably eradicated Floridobolini from some of its established range and was partitioned into Mexican (Aztecolus Chamberlin, 1943) and US (Chicobolus Chamberlin, 1947) taxa by the Seaway. The fi nal invader, Spirobolini, dispersed northwestward and northeastward to both the Pacifi c and Atlantic coasts; instead of Trans-Beringia, we prefer penetration of the Asian part of “Asiamerica,” when it temporarily formed during the Cretaceous, to explain the Mongolian fossil genus, Gobiulus Dzik, 1975, herein assigned to Tylobolini, and the occurrence of Spirobolus Brandt, 1833, in China and Taiwan today. In the east, Narceus Rafi nesque, 1820, spread across Appalachia, eradicated most remaining populations of Floridobolus and Chicobolus, and expanded to Maine and Québec after retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation. Chicobolus and Narceus also penetrated earliest Florida; the former established itself in the Central Highlands, spread through the widening peninsula as sea levels fell, and remained on insular refugia when waters rose. Apparently fueled by the different Floridian environments, Narceus underwent time-consuming speciation; consequently, Floridobolus and Chicobolus still survive on the peninsula, and an allopatric population of the latter inhabits coastal South Carolina. However, N. gordanus (Chamberlin, 1943) occurs syntopically with both in peninsular Florida and may be actively eradicating them from their last stronghold. Trigoniulus niger, takahasii, and segmentatus, all by Takakuwa, 1940, are removed from Spirobolidae and returned toTrigoniulidae (Trigoniulidea). New records in the Appendix include the fi rst of Aztecolus from Durango and Jalisco, Mexico.
- A julid milliped in Chilean Patagonia, and a compilation of ordinal representatives in South America and associated islands (Diplopoda: Julida) (2014)
- An adventive female Julidae (Julida), discovered in a moist, grassy depression in the Peninsula de Brunswick south of Punta Arenas, Chile, and assigned to Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, is the fi rst vouchered milliped from southern Patagonia. The southernmost milliped ever collected in Chile, South America, and the Western Hemisphere, it may also constitute the southernmost in the world as the site is only ~1,176 km (735 mi) northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula. Records are consolidated of the two families, three genera, and fi ve species of this Holarctic order that are known from South America. They are documented from Argentina, Chile, and southern Peru and Brazil; three species are known from the Juan Fernandez Islands.
- Variation and pigmentation in the milliped, Xystocheir brachymacris Shelley, 1996, from the northern Sierra Nevada foothills, California, USA (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae: Xystocheirini) (2014)
- A newly discovered population of Xystocheir brachymacris Shelley, 1996 (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae: Xystocheirini), in Placer County (Co.), California, exhibits an unusual grayish-black color dorsally with mottled, ovoid patches at paranotal bases; it cons titutes northern generic and specifi c range extensions of ~28.4 km (17.6 mi). The gonopods differ from those in the El Dorado Co. population in having shorter/acuminate prefemoral processes and blade-like, rather than spatulate, processes “B” that angle away from the solenomere instead of overhanging it. Additionally, a strong distomedial prefemoral lobe, absent from the El Dorado population, arises from the stem in Placer Co. males. Authorship of Xystocheirini is properly attributed to Hoffman, 1980.
- A consolidated account of the polymorphic Caribbean milliped, Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876) (Spirobolida: Rhinocricidae), with illustrations of the holotype (2014)
- Past concepts and synonymies of Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876) (Spirobolida: Rhinocricidae), including the implied synonymy of Rhinocricus ectus Chamberlin, 1920, are consolidated into a formal account with the fi rst illustrations of the holotype. Prior to 1492, A. monilicornis was probably indigenous to an unknown number of southern Antillean islands, but through modern commerce, man has introduced it to Florida, Bermuda, Barbados, the Cayman Islands, and Jamaica, and probably repeatedly (re)introduced conspecifi c material to all the Lesser Antilles, resulting in subcontinuous gene pool mixing and reticulate evolution. A broad species concept is necessary to encompass the multitudinous variants, some of which have been recognized as species; only one true Caribbean species of Anadenobolus Silvestri, 1897, may exist, for which arboreus (Saussure, 1859) is the oldest name. The distribution of A. monilicornis presently extends from Bermuda and southern coastal Florida through the Greater and Lesser Antilles (excepting Cuba) to eastern coastal Venezuela and central Suriname, with outlier populations in Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and Tampa Bay and the eastern Floridian panhandle; excepting Barbados, the indigenous range may have extended from Hispaniola through the same area. Introductions into Manitoba, Canada, and North Carolina, USA, have not yielded viable populations. Localities are newly recorded from St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.
- Centipedes and Millipeds (Arthropoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda) from Saba Island, Lesser Antilles, and a Consolidation of Major References on the Myriapod Fauna of “Lesser” Caribbean Islands (2012)
- The chilopod, Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810) (Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae), and the diplopods, Pseudospirobolellus avernus (Butler, 1876) (Spirobolida: Pseudospirobolellidae) and Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847) (Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), are newly recorded from Saba Island, Lesser Antilles, which also harbors one additional scolopendromorph and four more chilognath millipeds. Except for the plausibly native scolopendrid centipede, Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1813, all are human introductions. Concentrated sampling is needed in the cloud/elfin forest atop Mt. Scenery, where indigenous millipeds may reside, and with extraction techniques throughout the island, to potentially document the diplopod subclass Penicillata. Nine small Caribbean islands in addition to Saba have been incorrectly reported as lacking diplopod records because publications citing them were overlooked by past authors. Works documenting myriapods from small Caribbean islands are consolidated.
- A third locality for the milliped Mitocybe auriportae Cook and Loomis, 1928 (Platydesmida: Andrognathidae) (2012)
- With the discovery of Mitocybe auriportae Cook and Loomis, 1928 (Platydesmida: Andrognathidae) in Alameda County (Co.), east of San Francisco Bay, a potential overall distribution in coastal California is projected based on those of partly congruent diplopods. The area extends from northern Mendocino to central Monterey cos. and inland to central Lake, Yolo, and Santa Clara cos.
- Millipeds from the eastern Dakotas and western Minnesota, USA, with an account of Pseudopolydesmus serratus (Say, 1821) (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae); first published records from six states and the District of Columbia (2012)
- The diplopod orders Callipodida and Polydesmida, and their respective families Abacionidae and Xystodesmidae, are initially recorded from South Dakota as is Polydesmidae from North Dakota. Other new records of indigenous taxa include Abacion Rafinesque, 1820/A. texense (Loomis, 1937) and Pleuroloma/P. flavipes, both by Rafinesque, 1820, from South Dakota, and Pseudopolydesmus Attems, 1898/P. serratus (Say, 1821) from Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia. New records of Aniulus garius Chamberlin, 1912, A. (Hakiulus) d. diversifrons (Wood, 1867), and Oriulus venustus (Wood, 1864) (Julida: Parajulidae) are provided for western Minnesota and/or eastern North Dakota. Published records from these states are summarized, and the introduced taxa, Julidae/Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894/C. caeruleocinctus (Wood, 1864) and Paradoxosomatidae/Oxidus Cook, 1911/O. gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), are newly recorded from the Dakotas. The distribution of P. serratus, which extends from Maine to South Carolina and the Florida panhandle, west to Texas, and north to Fargo, North Dakota is described and discussed. This distribution exhibits a prominent southeastern lacuna which we hypothesize suggests replacement by younger, more successful species, as postulated for a similar distributional gap in Scytonotus granulatus (Say, 1821).