- Antinociceptive effects of reactive oxygen species scavengers in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain (2011)
- Recent data indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the nociceptive system during persistent pain and contribute to pain sensitization. Aim of this study was to investigate potential antinociceptive effects of ROS scavengers in different animal models of pain. Intrathecal injection of ROS scavengers 1-Oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl -4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL) or Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) significantly inhibited formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice, suggesting that ROS released in the spinal cord are involved in nociceptive processing. Formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was also inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E, but not of vitamin C or vitamin E alone. Moreover, the combination of vitamin C and E dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. The SNI-induced mechanical allodynia was also reduced after intrathecal injection of the combination of vitamin C and E, and western blot analyses revealed that vitamin C and E treatment can ameliorate the activation of p38 MAPK in the spinal cord and in DRGs. These data suggest that a combination of vitamin C and E can inhibit the nociceptive behavior in animal models of pain, and points to a role of the spinal cord as an important area of ROS production during nociceptive processing.
- Additive antinociceptive effects of a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E after peripheral nerve injury (2011)
- Accumulating evidence indicates that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the development of exaggerated pain hypersensitivity during persistent pain. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of the antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We show that systemic administration of a combination of vitamins C and E inhibited the early behavioral responses to formalin injection and the neuropathic pain behavior after peripheral nerve injury, but not the inflammatory pain behavior induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In contrast, vitamin C or vitamin E given alone failed to affect the nociceptive behavior in all tested models. The attenuated neuropathic pain behavior induced by the vitamin C and E combination was paralleled by a reduced p38 phosphorylation in the spinal cord and in dorsal root ganglia, and was also observed after intrathecal injection of the vitamins. Moreover, the vitamin C and E combination ameliorated the allodynia induced by an intrathecally delivered ROS donor. Our results suggest that administration of vitamins C and E in combination may exert synergistic antinociceptive effects, and further indicate that ROS essentially contribute to nociceptive processing in special pain states.