- Oxidative stress induces CHIP-mediated ubiquitination and roteasomal degradation of soluble guanylyl cyclase : oral presentation (2007)
- Oxidative stress attenuates the NO-cGMP pathway, e.g. in the vascular system, through scavenging of free NO radicals by superoxide O2•-, by inactivation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) via oxidation of its central Fe2+ ion, and by down-regulation of sGC protein levels. While the former pathways are well established, the molecular mechanisms underlying the latter are still obscure. Using oxidative sGC inhibitor ODQ we demonstrate rapid down-regulation of sGC protein in mammalian cells. Co-incubation with proteasomal inhibitor MG132 results in accumulation of ubiquitinated sGC whereas sGC activator BAY 58–2667 prevents ubiquitination. ODQ-induced down-regulation of sGC is mediated through selective ubiquitination of its b subunit, and BAY 58–2667 abrogates this effect. Ubiquitination of sGC-b is dramatically enhanced by E3 ligase CHIP. Our data indicate that oxidative stress promotes ubiquitination of sGC b subunit through E3 ligase CHIP, and that sGC activator 58–2667 reverts this effect, most likely through stabilization of the heme-free b subunit. Thus the deleterious effects of oxidative stress can be counter-balanced by an activator of a key enzyme of vascular homeostasis.
- Characterization of MRIP2 as a NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase-associated protein (2005)
- Poster presentation: NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclases (sGCs) are cytosolic receptors for nitric oxide (NO) catalyzing the conversion of GTP to cGMP. sGCs are obligate heterodimers composed of one alpha and beta subunit each. The allosteric mechanism of sGC activation via NO is well understood, however, our knowledge about alternative mechanisms such as protein-protein interactions regulating activity, availability, translocation and expression of sGC is rather limited. In a search by the yeast two-hybrid system using the catalytic domain of the alpha1 subunit as the bait, we have identified two structurally related proteins AGAP1  and MRIP2 as novel sGC interacting proteins. MRIP2 is a multi-domain protein of 75 kDa comprising a single PH and ArfGAP domain each and two ankyrin repeats. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments using COS1 cells overexpressing both proteins demonstrated the interaction of MRIP2 with both subunits of the sGC alpha1beta1. Confocal microscopical analysis showed a prominent plasma membrane staining of MRIP2. This membrane association is mediated through an N-terminal myristoylation site and through binding of its PH domain to phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). We hypothesize that MRIP2 may represent an acceptor protein for sGC that mediates recruitment of cytosolic sGC to the plasma membrane or other subcellular compartments.
- Nitric oxide-independent vasodilator rescues heme-oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase from proteosomal degradation (2009)
- Poster presentation: Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential vasodilator. In vascular diseases, oxidative stress attenuates NO signaling by both chemical scavenging of free NO and oxidation and down-regulation of its major intracellular receptor, the alpha/beta heterodimeric heme-containing soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Oxidation can also induce loss of sGC's heme and responsiveness to NO. Results sGC activators such as BAY 58-2667 bind to oxidized/heme-free sGC and reactivate the enzyme to exert disease-specific vasodilation. Here we show that oxidation-induced down-regulation of sGC protein extends to isolated blood vessels. Mechanistically, degradation was triggered through sGC ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The heme-binding site ligand, BAY 58-2667, prevented sGC ubiquitination and stabilized both alpha and beta subunits. Conclusion Collectively, our data establish oxidation-ubiquitination of sGC as a modulator of NO/cGMP signaling and point to a new mechanism of action for sGC activating vasodilators by stabilizing their receptor, oxidized/heme-free sGC.