Year of publication
- Hybrid approaches to heavy ion collisions and future perspectives (2011)
- We present the current status of hybrid approaches to describe heavy ion collisions and their future challenges and perspectives. First we present a hybrid model combining a Boltzmann transport model of hadronic degrees of freedom in the initial and final state with an optional hydrodynamic evolution during the dense and hot phase. Second, we present a recent extension of the hydrodynamical model to include fluctuations near the phase transition by coupling a chiral field to the hydrodynamic evolution.
- Structure of the vacuum in nuclear matter: a nonperturbative approach (1997)
- We compute the vacuum polarization correction to the binding energy of nuclear matter in the Walecka model using a nonperturbative approach. We first study such a contribution as arising from a ground-state structure with baryon-antibaryon condensates. This yields the same results as obtained through the relativistic Hartree approximation of summing tadpole diagrams for the baryon propagator. Such a vacuum is then generalized to include quantum effects from meson fields through scalar-meson condensates which amounts to summing over a class of multiloop diagrams. The method is applied to study properties of nuclear matter and leads to a softer equation of state giving a lower value of the incompressibility than would be reached without quantum effects. The density-dependent effective sigma mass is also calculated including such vacuum polarization effects.
- Coulomb effects on electromagnetic pair production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1999)
- We calculate the asymptotic high-energy amplitude for electrons scattering at one ion, as well as at two colliding ions, by means of perturbation theory. We show that the interaction with one ion eikonalizes and that the interaction with two ions causally decouples. We are able to put previous results on perturbative grounds and propose further applications for the obtained rules for interactions on the light cone. We discuss the implications of the eikonal amplitude on the pair production probability in ultrarelativistic peripheral heavy-ion collisions. In this context the Weizsäcker-Williams method is shown to be exact in the ultrarelativistic limit, irrespective of the produced particles’ mass. A new equivalent single-photon distribution is derived, which correctly accounts for Coulomb distortions. The impact on single-photon induced processes is discussed.
- Phase transition in the chiral sigma-omega model with dilatons (1996)
- We investigate the properties of di erent modifications to the linear -model (including a dilaton field associated with broken scale invariance) at finite baryon density and nonzero temperature T. The explicit breaking of chiral symmetry and the way the vector meson mass is generated are significant for the appearance of a phase of nearly vanishing nucleon mass besides the solution describing normal nuclear matter. The elimination of the abnormal solution prohibits the onset of a chiral phase transition but allows to lower the compressibility to a reasonable range. The repulsive contributions from the vector mesons are responsible for the wide range of stability of the normal phase in the (µ, T)-plane. The abnormal solution becomes not only energet- ically preferable to the normal state at high temperature or density, but also mechanically stable due to the inclusion of dilatons. PACS number:12.39.F
- Hypermatter in chiral field theory (1997)
- Abstract. A generalized Lagrangian for the description of hadronic matter based on the linear SU(3)L × SU(3)R -model is proposed. Besides the baryon octet, the spin-0 and spin-1 nonets, a gluon condensate associated with broken scale invariance is incorporated. The observed values for the vacuum masses of the baryons and mesons are reproduced. In mean-field approximation, vector and scalar interactions yield a saturating nuclear equation of state. Finite nuclei can be reasonably described, too. The condensates and the e ective baryon masses at finite baryon density and temperature are discussed.
- Chiral Lagrangian for strange hadronic matter (1997)
- A generalized Lagrangian for the description of hadronic matter based on the linear SU(3)L × SU(3)R -model is proposed. Besides the baryon octet, the spin-0 and spin-1 nonets, a gluon condensate associated with broken scale invariance is incorporated. The observed values for the vacuum masses of the baryons and mesons are reproduced. In mean-field approximation, vector and scalar interactions yield a saturating nuclear equation of state. We discuss the di culties and possibilities to construct a chiral invariant baryon-meson interaction that leads to a realistic equation of state. It is found that a coupling of the strange condensate to nucleons is needed to describe the hyperon potentials correctly. The effective baryon masses and the appearance of an abnormal phase of nearly massless nucleons at high densities are examined. A nonlinear realization of chiral symmetry is considered, to retain a Yukawa-type baryon-meson interaction and to establish a connection to the Walecka-model.
- Kaon effective mass and energy from a novel chiral SU(3) symmetric Lagrangian (1999)
- A new chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is proposed to describe the properties of kaons and antikaons in the nuclear medium, the ground state of dense matter and the kaon-nuclear interactions consistently. The saturation properties of nuclear matter are reproduced as well as the results of the Dirac-Brückner theory. After taking into account the coupling between the omega meson and the kaon, we obtain similar results for the e ective kaon and antikaon energies as calculated in the one-boson-exchange model while in our model the parameters of the kaon-nuclear interactions are constrained by the SU(3) chiral symmetry. PACS number(s): 14.40.Aq, 12.39.Fe, 21.30.Fe
- Nuclei in a chiral SU(3) model (1998)
- Nuclei can be described satisfactorily in a nonlinear chiral SU(3)-framework, even with standard potentials of the linearmodel. The condensate value of the strange scalar meson is found to be important for the properties of nuclei even without adding hyperons. By neglecting terms which couple the strange to the nonstrange condensate one can reduce the model to a Walecka model structure embedded in SU(3). We discuss inherent problems with chiral SU(3) models regarding hyperon optical potentials.
- Effective kaon energy from a novel chiral SU(3) model (1998)
- A new chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is proposed to describe the properties of kaons and anti-kaons in the nuclear medium. The saturation properties of nuclear matter are reproduced as well as the results of the Dirac-Brückner theory. After introducing the coupling between the omega meson and the kaon, our results for e ective kaon and anti-kaon energy are quite similar as calculated in the one-boson-exchange model.
- Chiral model for dense, hot and strange hadronic matter (1999)
- Introduction: Until now it is not possible to determine the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter from QCD. One succesfully applied alternative way to describe the hadronic world at high densities and temperatures are effective models like the RMF-models , where the relevant degrees of freedom are baryons and mesons instead of quarks and gluons. Since approximate chiral symmetry is an essential feature of QCD, it should be a useful concept for building and restricting e ective models. It has been shown [2,3] that effective sigma-omega models including SU(2) chiral symmetry are able to obtain a reasonable description of nuclear matter and finite nuclei. Recently  we have shown that an extended SU(3) × SU(3) chiral sigma-omega model is able to describe nuclear matter ground state properties, vacuum properties and finite nuclei satisfactorily. This model includes the lowest SU(3) multiplets of the baryons (octet and decuplet), the spin-0 and the spin-1 mesons as the relevant degrees of freedom. Here we will discuss the predictions of this model for dense, hot, and strange hadronic matter.