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#### Keywords

- Dirac (2)
- Dirac-Brueckner theory (2)
- Dirac-Brückner Theorie (2)
- Lagrangian (2)
- Quanten-Chromodynamik (2)
- Quantenchromodynamik (2)
- Quantum Chromodynamics (2)
- dense matter (2)
- dichte Materie (2)
- Anti-Kaon (1)

- Chiral Lagrangian for strange hadronic matter (1997)
- A generalized Lagrangian for the description of hadronic matter based on the linear SU(3)L × SU(3)R -model is proposed. Besides the baryon octet, the spin-0 and spin-1 nonets, a gluon condensate associated with broken scale invariance is incorporated. The observed values for the vacuum masses of the baryons and mesons are reproduced. In mean-field approximation, vector and scalar interactions yield a saturating nuclear equation of state. We discuss the di culties and possibilities to construct a chiral invariant baryon-meson interaction that leads to a realistic equation of state. It is found that a coupling of the strange condensate to nucleons is needed to describe the hyperon potentials correctly. The effective baryon masses and the appearance of an abnormal phase of nearly massless nucleons at high densities are examined. A nonlinear realization of chiral symmetry is considered, to retain a Yukawa-type baryon-meson interaction and to establish a connection to the Walecka-model.

- Nuclei in a chiral SU(3) model (1998)
- Nuclei can be described satisfactorily in a nonlinear chiral SU(3)-framework, even with standard potentials of the linearmodel. The condensate value of the strange scalar meson is found to be important for the properties of nuclei even without adding hyperons. By neglecting terms which couple the strange to the nonstrange condensate one can reduce the model to a Walecka model structure embedded in SU(3). We discuss inherent problems with chiral SU(3) models regarding hyperon optical potentials.

- Chiral model for dense, hot and strange hadronic matter (1999)
- Introduction: Until now it is not possible to determine the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter from QCD. One succesfully applied alternative way to describe the hadronic world at high densities and temperatures are effective models like the RMF-models [1], where the relevant degrees of freedom are baryons and mesons instead of quarks and gluons. Since approximate chiral symmetry is an essential feature of QCD, it should be a useful concept for building and restricting e ective models. It has been shown [2,3] that effective sigma-omega models including SU(2) chiral symmetry are able to obtain a reasonable description of nuclear matter and finite nuclei. Recently [4] we have shown that an extended SU(3) × SU(3) chiral sigma-omega model is able to describe nuclear matter ground state properties, vacuum properties and finite nuclei satisfactorily. This model includes the lowest SU(3) multiplets of the baryons (octet and decuplet[5]), the spin-0 and the spin-1 mesons as the relevant degrees of freedom. Here we will discuss the predictions of this model for dense, hot, and strange hadronic matter.

- Hadrons in dense resonance matter: a chiral SU(3) approach (2000)
- A nonlinear chiral SU(3) approach including the spin 3 2 decuplet is developed to describe dense matter. The coupling constants of the baryon resonances to the scalar mesons are determined from the decuplet vacuum masses and SU(3) symmetry relations. Di erent methods of mass generation show significant differences in the properties of the spin- 3 2 particles and in the nuclear equation of state

- Critical review of quark gluon plasma signals (2000)
- Compelling evidence for a new form of matter has been claimed to be formed in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS. We critically review two suggested signatures for this new state of matter: First the suppression of the J/psi , which should be strongly suppressed in the QGP by two different mechanisms, the color-screening [1] and the QCD-photoe ect [2]. Secondly the measured particle, in particular strange hadronic, ratios might signal the freeze-out from a quark-gluon phase.

- Particle ratios at RHIC : effective hadron masses and chemical freeze-out (2002)
- The measured particle ratios in central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL are investigated within a chemical and thermal equilibrium chiral SU(3) theta - omega approach. The commonly adopted noninteracting gas calculations yield temperatures close to or above the critical temperature for the chiral phase transition, but without taking into account any interactions. Contrary, the chiral SU(3) model predicts temperature and density dependent e ective hadron masses and e ective chemical potentials in the medium and a transition to a chirally restored phase at high temperatures or chemical potentials. Three di erent parametrizations of the model, which show di erent types of phase transition behaviour, are investigated. We show that if a chiral phase transition occured in those collisions, freezing of the relative hadron abundances in the symmetric phase is excluded by the data. Therefore, either very rapid chemical equilibration must occur in the broken phase, or the measured hadron ratios are the outcome of the dynamical symmetry breaking. Furthermore, the extracted chemical freeze-out parameters di er considerably from those obtained in simple noninteracting gas calculations. In particular, the three models yield up to 35 MeV lower temperatures than the free gas approximation. The in-medium masses turn out di er up to 150 MeV from their vacuum values.

- Neutron star properties in a chiral SU(3) model (1999)
- We investigate various properties of neutron star matter within an e ective chiral SU(3)L × SU(3)R model. The predictions of this model are compared with a Walecka-type model. It is demonstrated that the importance of hy- peron degrees are strongly depending on the interaction used, even if the equation of state near saturation density is nearly the same in both models. While the Walecka-type model predicts a strange star core with strangeness fraction fS 4/3, the chiral model allows only for fS 1/3 and predicts that 0, + and 0 will not exist in star, in contrast to the Walecka-type model. PACS: 26.60+c, 21.65+f, 24.10Jv

- Physics opportunities at RHIC and LHC (1999)
- Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics, UrQMD, and quark molecular dynamics) are used to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions from the SPS via RHIC to LHC. It is demonstrated that these models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently (thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) -- all yield a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon yields, including J/Psi meson production/suppression, strange matter formation, dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off and squeeze-out) are investigated. Observations of interesting phenomena in dense matter are reported. However, we emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of several observables in order to come close to pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data. The role of future experiments with the STAR and ALICE detectors is pointed out.

- Structure of the vacuum in nuclear matter: a nonperturbative approach (1997)
- We compute the vacuum polarization correction to the binding energy of nuclear matter in the Walecka model using a nonperturbative approach. We first study such a contribution as arising from a ground-state structure with baryon-antibaryon condensates. This yields the same results as obtained through the relativistic Hartree approximation of summing tadpole diagrams for the baryon propagator. Such a vacuum is then generalized to include quantum effects from meson fields through scalar-meson condensates which amounts to summing over a class of multiloop diagrams. The method is applied to study properties of nuclear matter and leads to a softer equation of state giving a lower value of the incompressibility than would be reached without quantum effects. The density-dependent effective sigma mass is also calculated including such vacuum polarization effects.

- Coulomb effects on electromagnetic pair production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1999)
- We calculate the asymptotic high-energy amplitude for electrons scattering at one ion, as well as at two colliding ions, by means of perturbation theory. We show that the interaction with one ion eikonalizes and that the interaction with two ions causally decouples. We are able to put previous results on perturbative grounds and propose further applications for the obtained rules for interactions on the light cone. We discuss the implications of the eikonal amplitude on the pair production probability in ultrarelativistic peripheral heavy-ion collisions. In this context the Weizsäcker-Williams method is shown to be exact in the ultrarelativistic limit, irrespective of the produced particles’ mass. A new equivalent single-photon distribution is derived, which correctly accounts for Coulomb distortions. The impact on single-photon induced processes is discussed.