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#### Keywords

- Dirac (2)
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- Dirac-Brückner Theorie (2)
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- Quanten-Chromodynamik (2)
- Quantenchromodynamik (2)
- Quantum Chromodynamics (2)
- dense matter (2)
- dichte Materie (2)
- Anti-Kaon (1)

- Superheavy nuclei in a chiral hadronic model (2000)
- Superheavy nuclei are investigated in a nonlinear chiral SU(3)-model. The proton number Z=120 and neutron numbers of N=172, 184 and 198 are predicted to be magic. The charge distributions and alpha-decay chains hint towards a hollow stucture.

- Structure of the vacuum in nuclear matter: a nonperturbative approach (1997)
- We compute the vacuum polarization correction to the binding energy of nuclear matter in the Walecka model using a nonperturbative approach. We first study such a contribution as arising from a ground-state structure with baryon-antibaryon condensates. This yields the same results as obtained through the relativistic Hartree approximation of summing tadpole diagrams for the baryon propagator. Such a vacuum is then generalized to include quantum effects from meson fields through scalar-meson condensates which amounts to summing over a class of multiloop diagrams. The method is applied to study properties of nuclear matter and leads to a softer equation of state giving a lower value of the incompressibility than would be reached without quantum effects. The density-dependent effective sigma mass is also calculated including such vacuum polarization effects.

- Space-time evolution and HBT analysis of relativistic heavy ion collisions in a chiral SU(3) x SU(3) model (2002)
- The space-time dynamics and pion-HBT radii in central heavy ion-collisions at CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC are investigated within a hydrodynamic simulation. The dependence of the dynamics and the HBT-parameters on the EoS is studied with different parametrizations of a chiral SU(3) sigma omega model. The selfconsistent collective expansion includes the e ects of e ective hadron masses, generated by the nonstrange and strange scalar condensates. Different chiral EoS show di erent types of phase transitions and even a crossover. The influence of the order of the phase transition and of the latent heat on the space-time dynamics and pion-HBT radii is studied. A small latent heat, i.e. a weak first-order chiral phase transition, or a smooth crossover lead to distinctly di erent HBT predictions than a strong first order phase transition. A quantitative description of the data, both at SPS energies as well as at RHIC energies, appears di cult to achieve within the ideal hydrodynamic approach using the SU(3) chiral EoS. A strong first-order quasi-adiabatic chiral phase transition seems to be disfavored by the pion-HBT data from CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC.

- Physics opportunities at RHIC and LHC (1999)
- Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics, UrQMD, and quark molecular dynamics) are used to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions from the SPS via RHIC to LHC. It is demonstrated that these models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently (thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) -- all yield a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon yields, including J/Psi meson production/suppression, strange matter formation, dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off and squeeze-out) are investigated. Observations of interesting phenomena in dense matter are reported. However, we emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of several observables in order to come close to pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data. The role of future experiments with the STAR and ALICE detectors is pointed out.

- Phase transition in the chiral sigma-omega model with dilatons (1996)
- We investigate the properties of di erent modifications to the linear -model (including a dilaton field associated with broken scale invariance) at finite baryon density and nonzero temperature T. The explicit breaking of chiral symmetry and the way the vector meson mass is generated are significant for the appearance of a phase of nearly vanishing nucleon mass besides the solution describing normal nuclear matter. The elimination of the abnormal solution prohibits the onset of a chiral phase transition but allows to lower the compressibility to a reasonable range. The repulsive contributions from the vector mesons are responsible for the wide range of stability of the normal phase in the (µ, T)-plane. The abnormal solution becomes not only energet- ically preferable to the normal state at high temperature or density, but also mechanically stable due to the inclusion of dilatons. PACS number:12.39.F

- Particle ratios at RHIC : effective hadron masses and chemical freeze-out (2002)
- The measured particle ratios in central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL are investigated within a chemical and thermal equilibrium chiral SU(3) theta - omega approach. The commonly adopted noninteracting gas calculations yield temperatures close to or above the critical temperature for the chiral phase transition, but without taking into account any interactions. Contrary, the chiral SU(3) model predicts temperature and density dependent e ective hadron masses and e ective chemical potentials in the medium and a transition to a chirally restored phase at high temperatures or chemical potentials. Three di erent parametrizations of the model, which show di erent types of phase transition behaviour, are investigated. We show that if a chiral phase transition occured in those collisions, freezing of the relative hadron abundances in the symmetric phase is excluded by the data. Therefore, either very rapid chemical equilibration must occur in the broken phase, or the measured hadron ratios are the outcome of the dynamical symmetry breaking. Furthermore, the extracted chemical freeze-out parameters di er considerably from those obtained in simple noninteracting gas calculations. In particular, the three models yield up to 35 MeV lower temperatures than the free gas approximation. The in-medium masses turn out di er up to 150 MeV from their vacuum values.

- Nuclei, superheavy nuclei, and hypermatter in a chiral SU(3) model (2001)
- A model based on chiral SU(3)-symmetry in nonlinear realisation is used for the investigation of nuclei, superheavy nuclei, hypernuclei and multistrange nuclear objects (so called MEMOs). The model works very well in the case of nuclei and hypernuclei with one Lambda-particle and rules out MEMOs. Basic observables which are known for nuclei and hypernuclei are reproduced satisfactorily. The model predicts Z=120 and N=172, 184 and 198 as the next shell closures in the region of superheavy nuclei. The calculations have been performed in self-consistent relativistic mean field approximation assuming spherical symmetry. The parameters were adapted to known nuclei.

- Nuclei in a chiral SU(3) model (1998)
- Nuclei can be described satisfactorily in a nonlinear chiral SU(3)-framework, even with standard potentials of the linearmodel. The condensate value of the strange scalar meson is found to be important for the properties of nuclei even without adding hyperons. By neglecting terms which couple the strange to the nonstrange condensate one can reduce the model to a Walecka model structure embedded in SU(3). We discuss inherent problems with chiral SU(3) models regarding hyperon optical potentials.

- Neutron star properties in a chiral SU(3) model (1999)
- We investigate various properties of neutron star matter within an e ective chiral SU(3)L × SU(3)R model. The predictions of this model are compared with a Walecka-type model. It is demonstrated that the importance of hy- peron degrees are strongly depending on the interaction used, even if the equation of state near saturation density is nearly the same in both models. While the Walecka-type model predicts a strange star core with strangeness fraction fS 4/3, the chiral model allows only for fS 1/3 and predicts that 0, + and 0 will not exist in star, in contrast to the Walecka-type model. PACS: 26.60+c, 21.65+f, 24.10Jv

- Kaon effective mass and energy from a novel chiral SU(3) symmetric Lagrangian (1999)
- A new chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is proposed to describe the properties of kaons and antikaons in the nuclear medium, the ground state of dense matter and the kaon-nuclear interactions consistently. The saturation properties of nuclear matter are reproduced as well as the results of the Dirac-Brückner theory. After taking into account the coupling between the omega meson and the kaon, we obtain similar results for the e ective kaon and antikaon energies as calculated in the one-boson-exchange model while in our model the parameters of the kaon-nuclear interactions are constrained by the SU(3) chiral symmetry. PACS number(s): 14.40.Aq, 12.39.Fe, 21.30.Fe