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- Silyl chalcogenolates: synthesis, reactivity and transition metal complexes (2006)
- Chalcogen-based species are common ligands in transition-metal chemistry and display a variety of coordination modes. Like alkyl- and arylchalcogenolates, silylchalcogenolates are able to stabilize transition-metal complexes. Metal chalcogenolates LnM-ESiR3 with small organic residues R can serve as precursors for larger metal–chalcogenide clusters, which can be accessed by cleaving the E-Si bond. Furthermore, large silyl residues at the chalcogen atom serve to kinetically stabilize reactive systems. To explore the diverse chemistry of this class of compounds, a number of different silyl chalcogenolates were synthesized, including the sodium siloxide Ph2MeSiONa and the chalcogen derivatives of the extremely sterically hindered silyl residues tBu2PhSi- und tBu3Si-. The anionic silyl species tBu2PhSiNa and tBu3SiNa nucleophilically degrade elemental chalcogens (S, Se, and Te), thus producing the silyl chalcogenolates tBu2PhSiENa and tBu3SiENa (E = S, Se, Te). The chemical and structural properties of these compounds were studied. Protonolysis produces the corresponding chalcogenols tBu2RSiEH, while oxidation leads to the dichalcogenides tBu2RSiE-ESiRtBu2 (R = tBu, Ph; E = S, Se, Te). Oxidative addition of the dichalcogenides to metal centers in low oxidation states offers one route to chalcogenolate complexes. To investigate the realm of this approach, three oligochalcogen compounds R3SiE-E′n-ESiR3 were synthesized. The tetrasulfane tBu3SiS-S2-SSitBu3 and the chalcogen(II)dithiolates (tBu3SiS)2Se and (tBu3SiS)2Te were produced, and their stability was investigated. The direct comparison of isoelectronic species allows for a deeper understanding of their similarities and differences. The silanides R3Si– can be considered as anionic phosphane analogues in which a phosphorus atom has been formally replaced with a Si– unit. Phosphanylborhydrides R2BH3P– also belong to this isoelectronic series. The same analogy holds true for the chalcogen derivatives related to the phosphane chalcogenides R3P=E. With this in mind, complexes of the CpFe(CO)2 fragment with the different isoelectronic ligands were synthesized and compared. The silyl-based ligands were found to be the strongest donors of the two isoelectronic series. The differences in donor strength were roughly twice as large for the nonchalcogen species as for the chalcogen-based ligands. To further investigate the chemistry of transition-metal silyl chalcogenolate complexes, the coordination behavior of the chalcogenolates tBu2RSiE– (R = tBu, Ph; E = S, Se, Te) was studied. Salt metathesis of silyl thiolates with appropriate metal halides leads to the multinuclear complexes [Cu(SSitBu2Ph)]4 and [ZnCl(SSitBu3)(THF)]2. Metathesis products were identified in the reactions of BrMn(CO)5 with one or two equivalents of tBu3SiSNa(THF)2. Diproporationation of these compounds leads to dimeric Mn(I)Mn(II) complexes. The crystal structure of the dinuclear disproportionation product [(CO)3Mn(mu-SSitBu3)3Mn(SSitBu3)]– displays a terminal tBu3SiS– ligand, which coordinates with a Mn-S-Si angle of 180°. This geometry indicates that the thiolate can be considered as a six-electron donor (2 sigma e–, 4 pie–), analogous to the cyclopentadienyl ligand. Photoinduced oxidative addition of the dichalcogenides to Fe(CO)5 leads to the dimeric complexes [(CO)3Fe(ESitBu3)]2 (E = S, Se, Te). The tellurolate complex forms quantitatively within 8 h. The thiolate complex, on the other hand, is formed slowly over a period of six months. IR-spectroscopic investigation of the CO vibrations of the three homologous complexes indicates that the tellurolate is the strongest donor of the series.