- Association of IFNL3 rs12979860 and rs8099917 with Biochemical Predictors of Interferon Responsiveness in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection (2013)
- Background & Aims: Genetic variations near the interferon lambda 3 gene (IFNL3, IL28B) are the most powerful predictors for sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, compared to other biochemical or histological baseline parameters. We evaluated whether the interplay of both IFNL3 polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 together with non-genetic clinical factors contributes to the predictive role of these genetic variants. Methods: The cohort comprised 1,402 patients of European descent with chronic HCV type 1 infection. 1,298 patients received interferon-based antiviral therapy, and 719 (55%) achieved SVR. The IFNL3 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis. Results: A significant correlation was found between the IFNL3 polymorphisms and biochemical as well as virologic predictors of treatment outcome such as ALT, GGT, cholesterol, and HCV RNA levels. In multivariate regression analysis, IFLN3 SNPs, HCV RNA levels, and the GGT/ALT ratio were independent predictors of SVR. Dependent on the GGT/ALT ratio and on the HCV RNA concentration, significant variations in the likelihood for achieving SVR were observed in both, carriers of the responder as well as non-responder alleles. Conclusions: Our data support a clear association between IFNL3 genotypes and baseline parameters known to impact interferon responsiveness. Improved treatment outcome prediction was achieved when these predictors were considered in combination with the IFNL3 genotype.
- A genetic validation study reveals a role of vitamin D metabolism in the response to interferon-alfa-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C (2012)
- Background: To perform a comprehensive study on the relationship between vitamin D metabolism and the response to interferon-α-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C. Methodology/Principal Findings: Associations between a functionally relevant polymorphism in the gene encoding the vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1-1260 rs10877012) and the response to treatment with pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin were determined in 701 patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) and treatment outcome were analysed. CYP27B1-1260 rs10877012 was found to be an independent predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with poor-response IL28B genotypes (15% difference in SVR for rs10877012 genotype AA vs. CC, p = 0.02, OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.061–2.188), but not in patients with favourable IL28B genotype. Patients with chronic hepatitis C showed a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25[OH]D3<20 ng/mL) during all seasons, but 25(OH)D3 serum levels were not associated with treatment outcome. Conclusions/Significance: Our study suggests a role of bioactive vitamin D (1,25[OH]2D3, calcitriol) in the response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C. However, serum concentration of the calcitriol precursor 25(OH)D3 is not a suitable predictor of treatment outcome.
- Genetic analyses reveal a role for vitamin D insufficiency in HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma development (2013)
- Background: Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with the occurrence of various types of cancer, but causal relationships remain elusive. We therefore aimed to determine the relationship between genetic determinants of vitamin D serum levels and the risk of developing hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methodology/Principal Findings: Associations between CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7 genotypes that are determinants of reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D3) serum levels and the risk of HCV-related HCC development were investigated for 1279 chronic hepatitis C patients with HCC and 4325 without HCC, respectively. The well-known associations between CYP2R1 (rs1993116, rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and DHCR7 (rs7944926, rs12785878) genotypes and 25(OH)D3 serum levels were also apparent in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The same genotypes of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with reduced 25(OH)D3 serum levels were found to be associated with HCV-related HCC (P = 0.07 [OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.99–1.28] for CYP2R1, P = 0.007 [OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.12–2.15] for GC, P = 0.003 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.13–1.78] for DHCR7; ORs for risk genotypes). In contrast, no association between these genetic variations and liver fibrosis progression rate (P>0.2 for each SNP) or outcome of standard therapy with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (P>0.2 for each SNP) was observed, suggesting a specific influence of the genetic determinants of 25(OH)D3 serum levels on hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusions/Significance: Our data suggest a relatively weak but functionally relevant role for vitamin D in the prevention of HCV-related hepatocarcinogenesis.
- "Es rechnet, also bin ich?" : Sammelband mit kritisch philosophischen Reflexionen (2005)
- Rezension zu: Wolfgang R. Köhler / Hans-Dieter Mutschler (Hrsg.) : Ist der Geist berechenbar? : Philosophische Reflexionen, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3-534-17210-8, 206 Seiten, 34,90 Euro.