- Descending aortic calcification increases renal dysfunction and in-hospital mortality in cardiac surgery patients with intraaortic balloon pump counterpulsation placed perioperatively: a case control study (2012)
- Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery increases length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. A significant number of patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures require perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support. Use of an IABP has been linked to an increased incidence of perioperative renal dysfunction and death. This might be due to dislodgement of atherosclerotic material in the descending thoracic aorta (DTA). Therefore, we retrospectively studied the correlation between DTA atheroma, AKI and in-hospital mortality. Methods: A total of 454 patients were retrospectively matched to one of four groups: -IABP/-DTA atheroma, +IABP/-DTA atheroma, -IABP/+DTA atheroma, +IABP/+DTA atheroma. Patients were then matched according to presence/absence of DTA atheroma, presence/absence of IABP, performed surgical procedure, age, gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). DTA atheroma was assessed through standard transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) imaging studies of the descending thoracic aorta. Results: Basic patient characteristics, except for age and gender, did not differ between groups. Perioperative AKI in patients with -DTA atheroma/+IABP was 5.1% versus 1.7% in patients with -DTA atheroma/-IABP. In patients with +DTA atheroma/+IABP the incidence of AKI was 12.6% versus 5.1% in patients with +DTA atheroma/-IABP. In-hospital mortality in patients with +DTA atheroma/-IABP was 3.4% versus 8.4% with +DTA atheroma/+IABP. In patients with +DTA atheroma/+IABP in hospital mortality was 20.2% versus 6.4% with +DTA atheroma/-IABP. Multivariate logistic regression identified DTA atheroma > 1 mm (P = *0.002, odds ratio (OR) = 4.13, confidence interval (CI) = 1.66 to 10.30), as well as IABP support (P = *0.015, OR = 3.04, CI = 1.24 to 7.45) as independent predictors of perioperative AKI and increased in-hospital mortality. DTA atheroma in conjunction with IABP significantly increased the risk of developing acute kidney injury (P = 0.0016) and in-hospital mortality (P = 0.0001) when compared to control subjects without IABP and without DTA atheroma. Conclusions: Perioperative IABP and DTA atheroma are independent predictors of perioperative AKI and in-hospital mortality. Whether adding an IABP in patients with severe DTA calcification increases their risk of developing AKI and mortality postoperatively cannot be clearly answered in this study. Nevertheless, when IABP and DTA are combined, patients are more likely to develop AKI and to die postoperatively in comparison to patients without IABP and DTA atheroma.
- Intensive care unit-related fluconazole use in Spain and Germany: patient characteristics and outcomes of a prospective multicenter longitudinal observational study (2013)
- Background: Candida spp. are a frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections worldwide. Objective: To evaluate the use patterns and outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) fluconazole therapy in intensive care units in Spain and Germany. Patients and methods: The research reported here was a prospective multicenter longitudinal observational study in adult intensive care unit patients receiving IV fluconazole. Demographic, microbiologic, therapy success, length of hospital stay, adverse event, and all-cause mortality data were collected at 14 sites in Spain and five in Germany, from February 2004 to November 2005. Results: Patients (n = 303) received prophylaxis (n = 29), empiric therapy (n = 140), preemptive therapy (n = 85), or definitive therapy (n = 49). A total of 298 patients (98.4%) were treated with IV fluconazole as first-line therapy. The treating physicians judged therapy successful in 66% of prophylactic, 55% of empiric, 45% of preemptive, and 43% of definitive group patients. In the subgroup of 152 patients with proven and specified Candida infection only, 32% suffered from Candida specified as potentially resistant to IV fluconazole. The overall mortality rate was 42%. Conclusion: Our study informs treatment decision makers that approximately 32% of the patients with microbiological results available suffered from Candida specified as potentially resistant to IV fluconazole, highlighting the importance of appropriate therapy.
- Soluble triggering receptor on myeloid cells-1 is expressed in the course of non-infectious inflammation after traumatic lung contusion: a prospective cohort study (2011)
- Introduction: The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is known to be expressed during bacterial infections. We investigated whether TREM-1 is also expressed in non-infectious inflammation following traumatic lung contusion. Methods: In a study population of 45 adult patients with multiple trauma and lung contusion, we obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (blind suctioning of 20 ml NaCl (0.9%) via jet catheter) and collected blood samples at two time points (16 hours and 40 hours) after trauma. Post hoc patients were assigned to one of four groups radiologically classified according to the severity of lung contusion based on the initial chest tomography. Concentration of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) and bacterial growth were determined in the BAL. sTREM-1, IL-6, IL-10, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and leukocyte count were assessed in blood samples. Pulmonary function was evaluated by the paO2/FiO2 ratio. Results: Three patients were excluded due to positive bacterial growth in the initial BAL. In 42 patients the severity of lung contusion correlated with the levels of sTREM-1 16 hours and 40 hours after trauma. sTREM-1 levels were significantly (P < 0.01) elevated in patients with severe contusion (2,184 pg/ml (620 to 4,000 pg/ml)) in comparison with patients with mild (339 pg/ml (135 to 731 pg/ml)) or no (217 pg/ml (97 to 701 pg/ml)) contusion 40 hours following trauma. At both time points the paO2/FiO2 ratio correlated negatively with sTREM-1 levels (Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.446, P < 0.01). Conclusions: sTREM-1 levels are elevated in the BAL of patients following pulmonary contusion. Furthermore, the levels of sTREM-1 in the BAL correlate well with both the severity of radiological pulmonary tissue damage and functional impairment of gas exchange (paO2/FiO2 ratio).
- Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation combined with continuous positive airway pressure/assisted spontaneous breathing improves oxygenation in patients with H1N1-associated ARDS (2012)
- Background: Numerous cases of swine-origin 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) bridged by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy have been reported; however, complication rates are high. We present our experience with H1N1-associated ARDS and successful bridging of lung function using superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) in combination with continuous positive airway pressure/assisted spontaneous breathing (CPAP/ASB). Methods: We admitted five patients with H1N1 infection and ARDS to our intensive care unit. Although all patients required pure oxygen and controlled ventilation, oxygenation was insufficient. We applied SHFJV/CPAP/ASB to improve oxygenation. Results: Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratio prior SHFJV was 58-79 mmHg. In all patients, successful oxygenation was achieved by SHFJV (PaO2/FiO2 ratio 105-306 mmHg within 24 h). Spontaneous breathing was set during first hours after admission. SHFJV could be stopped after 39, 40, 72, 100, or 240 h. Concomitant pulmonary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was observed in all patients. Two patients were successfully discharged. The other three patients relapsed and died within 7 weeks mainly due to combined HSV infection and in two cases reoccurring H1N1 infection. Conclusions: SHFJV represents an alternative to bridge lung function successfully and improve oxygenation in the critically ill.