- Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D in assessing and valuing health status in patients with social phobia (2013)
- OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in patients with social phobia. METHODS: We used a sample of 445 patients with social phobia with five measurement points over a 30 month period. The discriminative ability of the EQ-5D was analysed by comparing the patients' responses with the general population and between different disease severity levels. For test-retest reliability we assessed the level of agreement in patients' responses over time, when there was no change in the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Construct validity was analysed by identifying correlations of the EQ-5D with more specific instruments. For responsiveness we compared the means of EQ VAS/EQ-5D index anchored on improved (deteriorated) health status and computed effect sizes as well as a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Compared to the general population, patients with social phobia reported more problems in the dimensions "usual activities", "pain/discomfort", and "anxiety/depression" and less problems in "mobility" and "self-care". The EQ-5D was able to distinguish between different disease severity levels. The test-retest reliability was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.6). Correlations between the EQ-5D and other instruments were mostly small except for correlations with Beck Depression Inventory. The EQ-5D index seemed to be more responsive than the EQ VAS, but with only medium effect sizes (0.5 < effect size < 0.8) in the British EQ-5D index and only significant in patients with improved health status. The ROC analysis revealed no significant results. CONCLUSIONS: The EQ-5D was moderately reliable and responsive in patients with improved health status. Construct validity was limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN53517394.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy of socially phobic children focusing on cognition : a randomised wait-list control study (2011)
- Background: Although literature provides support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as an efficacious intervention for social phobia, more research is needed to improve treatments for children. Methods: Forty four Caucasian children (ages 8-14) meeting diagnostic criteria of social phobia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; APA, 1994) were randomly allocated to either a newly developed CBT program focusing on cognition according to the model of Clark and Wells (n = 21) or a wait-list control group (n = 23). The primary outcome measure was clinical improvement. Secondary outcomes included improvements in anxiety coping, dysfunctional cognitions, interaction frequency and comorbid symptoms. Outcome measures included child report and clinican completed measures as well as a diagnostic interview. Results: Significant differences between treatment participants (4 dropouts) and controls (2 dropouts) were observed at post test on the German version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Furthermore, in the treatment group, significantly more children were free of diagnosis than in wait-list group at post-test. Additional child completed and clinician completed measures support the results. Discussion: The study is a first step towards investigating whether CBT focusing on cognition is efficacious in treating children with social phobia. Future research will need to compare this treatment to an active treatment group. There remain the questions of whether the effect of the treatment is specific to the disorder and whether the underlying theoretical model is adequate. Conclusion: Preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of the cognitive behavioral treatment focusing on cognition in socially phobic children. Active comparators should be established with other evidence-based CBT programs for anxiety disorders, which differ significantly in their dosage and type of cognitive interventions from those of the manual under evaluation (e.g. Coping Cat).
- "Hoffentlich spricht mich niemand an ..." : soziale Phobien: Wenn Ängste vor anderen Menschen krank machen (2004)
- Transfer of manualized CBT for social phobia into clinical practice (SOPHO-PRAX) : a study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial (2012)
- Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is generally known to be efficacious in the treatment of social phobia when applied in RCT's, namely when the treatment manual is based on the Clark-Wells approach. However, little is known about the efficacy of manualized treatments in routine clinical practice (Phase IV of psychotherapy research). The present study (SOPHO-PRAX) is a continuation of a large multi-centre randomized clinical trial (SOPHO-NET) and analyses the extent to which additional training practitioners in manualized procedures enhances treatment effect. Methods: N = 36 private practitioners will be included in three treatment centres and randomly designated to either training in manualized CBT or no specific training. The treatment effects of the therapies conducted by both groups of therapists will be compared. A total of 162 patients (N = 116 completers; N = 58 per condition) will be enrolled. Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) will serve as primary outcome measure. Remission from social phobia is defined as LSAS total [less than or equal to] 30 points. Data will be collected at treatment begin, after 8, 15, and 25 sessions (50 mins. each), at treatment completion, as well at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Discussion: The present CBT trial combines elements of randomized-controlled trials and naturalistic studies in an innovative way. It will directly inform about the incremental effects of procedures established in a controlled trial into clinical practice. Study results are relevant to health care decisions and policy. They may serve to improve quality of treatment, and shorten the timeframe between the development and widespread dissemination of effective methods, thereby reducing health cost expenditures. The results of this study will not only inform about the degree to which the new methods lead to an improvement of treatment course and outcome, but also about whether the effects of routine psychotherapeutic treatment are comparable to those of the controlled, strictly manualized treatments of the SOPHO-NET study. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01388231. This study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (SOPHO-NET: BMBF 01GV0607; SOPHO-PRAX: BMBF 01GV1001).