- Regulation of arginase II expression in macrophages by supernatants of apoptotic cells (2010)
- Apoptotic cell (AC)-derived factors alter the physiology of macrophages (M Phi s) towards a regulatory phenotype that is characterized by enhanced production of anti-inflammatory mediators, an attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine profile and reduced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Impaired NO production in response to ACs or AC-conditioned medium (CM) is facilitated by arginase II (ARG II) expression, which competes with inducible NO synthase for L-arginine. In this study, I investigated the signaling pathway that allowed CM to upregulate ARG II in M Phi s. A sphingolipid, further identified as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), was required but authentic S1P alone only produced small effects. S1P acted synergistically with a so far unidentified factor to elicit high ARG II expression. S1P signaled through S1P receptor 2 (S1P2), since the S1P2-antagonist JTE013 and siRNA knock-down of S1P2 prevented ARG II upregulation. Further, inhibition and knock-down of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) attenuated CM-mediated ARG II protein induction. Exploring ERK5-dependent transcriptional regulation, promoter deletion and luciferase reporter analysis of the murine ARG II promoter (mpARG II) suggested the involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB). This was confirmed by EMSA analysis and decoyoligonucleotides scavenging CREB, thereby preventing it from activating target genes and thus, blocking ARG II expression. I concluded that AC-derived S1P binds to S1P2 and acts synergistically with other factors to activate ERK5 and concomitantly CREB. This signaling cascade shapes an anti-inflammatory M Phi phenotype by ARG II induction. Further investigations of ERK5-dependent CREB activation suggested an indirect mechanism implying that ERK5 inhibited phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and thus, prevented hydrolysis of cAMP. Since S1P-dependent ERK5 activation presumably inhibited PDE4, subsequent cAMP accumulation led to enhanced PKA activity and CREB-mediated transcription. The unidentified factor(s) besides S1P probably provoked the required elevation of cAMP production in M Phi s. Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-producing adenylyl cyclase with SQ22536 as well as cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) with KT5720 suggested cAMP to be involved in CM-mediated ARG II up-regulation. Furthermore, forskolin-dependent activation of adenyly cyclase and simultaneous rolipram-mediated inhibition of PDE4 mimicked CM-induced ARG II expression. Considering these findings, I propose that one or several unidentified factors in CM provoke cAMP production in M Phi s. In parallel, AC-derived S1P activates ERK5, which inhibits PDE4-dependent cAMP hydrolysis, further raising intracellular cAMP levels. Thus, unrestricted continuous cAMP signaling via PKA/CREB, results in a time-dependent and sustained ARG II induction.