- Lipidic nanocapsule drug delivery: neuronal protection for cochlear implant optimization (2012)
- Objective: Sensorineural hearing loss leads to the progressive degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGC). Next to postoperative fibrous tissue growth, which should be suppressed to assure a close nerve–electrode interaction, the density of healthy SGC is one factor that influences the efficiency of cochlear implants (CI), the choice of treatment for affected patients. Rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, has proven neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and might also reduce SGC degeneration and fibrosis, but it has to pass the cellular membrane to be biologically active. Methods: Lipidic nanocapsules (LNC) can be used as biodegradable drug carriers to increase the efficacy of conventional application methods. We examined the biological effects of rolipram and LNC's core encapsulated rolipram on SGC and dendritic cell (DC) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in vitro and on SGC survival in systemically-deafened guinea pigs in vivo. Results: Our results prove that rolipram does not have a beneficial effect on cultured SGC. Incorporation of rolipram in LNC increased the survival of SGC significantly. In the DC study, rolipram significantly inhibited TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. The rolipram-loaded LNC provided a significant cytokine inhibition as well. In vivo data do not confirm the in vitro results. Conclusion: By transporting rolipram into the SGC cytoplasm, LNC enabled the neuroprotective effect of rolipram in vitro, but not in vivo. This might be due to dilution of test substances by perilymph or an inadequate release of rolipram based on differing in vivo and in vitro conditions. Nevertheless, based on in vitro results, proving a significantly increased neuronal survival when using LNC-rolipram compared to pure rolipram and pure LNC application, we believe that the combination of rolipram and LNC can potentially reduce neuronal degeneration and fibrosis after CI implantation. We conclude that rolipram is a promising drug that can be used in inner ear therapy and that LNC have potential as an inner ear drug-delivery system. Further experiments with modified conditions might reveal in vivo biological effects.
- In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a hydrogel reservoir as a continuous drug delivery system for inner ear treatment (2014)
- Fibrous tissue growth and loss of residual hearing after cochlear implantation can be reduced by application of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone-21-phosphate-disodium-salt (DEX). To date, sustained delivery of this agent to the cochlea using a number of pharmaceutical technologies has not been entirely successful. In this study we examine a novel way of continuous local drug application into the inner ear using a refillable hydrogel functionalized silicone reservoir. A PEG-based hydrogel made of reactive NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) prepolymers was evaluated as a drug conveying and delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulating the free form hydrogel into a silicone tube with a small opening for the drug diffusion resulted in delayed drug release but unaffected diffusion of DEX through the gel compared to the free form hydrogel. Additionally, controlled DEX release over several weeks could be demonstrated using the hydrogel filled reservoir. Using a guinea-pig cochlear trauma model the reservoir delivery of DEX significantly protected residual hearing and reduced fibrosis. As well as being used as a device in its own right or in combination with cochlear implants, the hydrogel-filled reservoir represents a new drug delivery system that feasibly could be replenished with therapeutic agents to provide sustained treatment of the inner ear.