- Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (1) (remove)
- Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches (2009)
- The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth ‘hadronic background’. These findings should be helpful for the optimal choice of collision systems and collision energies for the experimental search of the QCD critical point. Other observables are fluctuations of ratios of hadrons (e.g. pions, kaons, protons, etc.) which are not so much affected by volume fluctuations. In particular HSD results for the kaon-to-pion ratio fluctuations, which has been regarded as promising observable for a long time, are presented from low SPS energies up to high energies at RHIC. In addition to the HSD calculations statistical model is also used in terms of microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles. Further a study of the system size event-by-event fluctuations causing rapidity forward-backward correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. The HSD simulations reveal strong forward-backward correlations and reproduce the main qualitative features of the STAR data in A+A collisions at RHIC energies. It has been shown that strong forward-backward correlations arise due to an averaging over many different events that belong to one centrality bin. An optimization of the experimental selection of centrality classes is presented, which is relevant for the program of the NA61 collaboration at CERN, the low-energy program at RHIC, as well as future experiments at FAIR.