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- Angular correlations of coincident electron-positron pairs produced in heavy-ion collisions with nuclear time delay (1988)
- We calculate angular correlations between coincident electron-positron pairs emitted in heavy-ion collisions with nuclear time delay. Special attention is directed to a comparison of supercritical and subcritical systems, where angular correlations of pairs produced in collisions of bare U nuclei are found to alter their sign for nuclear delay times of the order of 2 × 10-21 s. This effect is shown to occur exclusively in supercritical systems, where spontaneous positron creation is active.

- Time-dependent Hartree-Fock studies of superheavy molecules (1983)
- The time dependent Hartree-Fock approximation is used to study the dynamical formation of long-lived superheavy nuclear complexes. The effects of long-range Coulomb polarization are treated in terms of a classical quadrupole polarization model. Our calculations show the existence of "resonantlike" structures over a narrow range of bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Calculations of 238U + 238U are presented and the consequences of these results for supercritical positron emission are discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 238U + 238U collisions as a function of bombarding energy, in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. Superheavy molecules and strongly damped collisions.

- Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion scattering (1981)
- The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for δ electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations.

- Viscosity and the equation of state in high energy heavy-ion reactions (1993)
- Viscous hydrodynamic calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions (Nb-Nb and Au-Au) from 200 to 800 MeV/nucleon are presented. The resulting baryon rapidity distributions, the in-plane transverse momentum transfer (bounce-off), and the azimuthal dependence of the midrapidity particles (off-plane squeeze out) compare well with Plastic Ball data. We find that the considered observables are sensitive both to the nuclear equation of state and to the nuclear shear viscosity η. Transverse momentum distributions indicate a high shear viscosity (η≊60 MeV/fm2 c) in the compression zone, in agreement with nuclear matter estimates. The bulk viscosity ζ influences only the entropy production during the expansion stage; collective observables like flow and dN/dY do not depend strongly on ζ. The recently observed off-plane (φ=90°) squeeze-out, which is found in the triple-differential rapidity distribution, exhibits the strongest sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state. It is demonstrated that for very central collisions, b=1 fm, the squeeze-out is visible even in the double-differential cross section. This is experimentally accessible by studying azimuthally symmetric events, as confirmed recently by data of the European 4π detector collaboration at Gesellchaft für Schwerionforschung Darmstadt.

- Collective correlations in spherical nuclei and the structure of giant resonances (1967)
- The theory of collective correlations in nuclei is formulated for giant resonances interacting with surface vibrations. The giant dipole states are treated in the particle-hole framework, while the surface vibrations are described by the collective model. Consequently, this treatment of nuclear structure goes beyond both the common particle-hole model (including its various improvements which take ground-state correlations into account) and the pure collective model. The interaction between giant resonances and surface degrees of freedom as known from the dynamic collective theory is formulated in the particle-hole language. Therefore, the theory contains the particle-hole structures and the most important "collective intermediate" structures of giant resonances. Detailed calculations are performed for 12C, 28Si, and 60Ni. A good detailed agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for all these nuclei, although only 60Ni is in the region where one would expect the theory to work well (50< A <110).

- Collective correlations in C12 (1966)
- The strong coupling of the giant resonance to the surface vibrations in C12 results in the splitting of the single one-particle, one-hole, 1- collective state into several components, thus improving the agreement between theory and experiment to a very large extent.

- Deuteron flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion reactions (1995)
- Deutron momentum distributions are predicted for nucleus-nucleus reactions at beam energies of 10-15 AGeV. The deutron transverse momentum spectra exhibit a pronounced shoulder-arm shape deviating markedly from thermal distributions due to collective transverse nuclear flow.

- Channeling process in a bent crystal (1996)
- We have investigated the channeling process of charged particles in a bent crystal. Invoking simple assumptions we derive a criterion, which determines whether channeling occurs or not. We obtain the same criterion using the Dirac equation. It is shown that the centrifugal force acting on the particle in the bent crystal significantly alters the effective transverse potential. The cases of axial and planar channeling are considered. The channeling probability and the dechanneling probability due to tunneling of the particle under the barrier in the effective transverse potential are estimated. These probabilities depend on the specific scaling parameter characterizing the process. Using the quasiclassical theory of synchrotron radiation we have calculated the contribution to the radiation spectrum, which arises due to the curvature of the channel. This contribution becomes significant to TeV electrons or positrons. Some practical consequences of our results are briefly discussed.

- Molecular particle-core model and its application to 13C-13C scattering (1978)
- On the basis of the two-center shell model a theory is developed for the excitation of loosely bound nucleons in heavy ion collisions. These nucleons move in the two-center shell model potential generated by all the nucleons and are described by molecular wave functions. The model is applied to calculate the cross sections for the elastic and inelastic 13C-13C scattering. The cross sections show intermediate structures caused by the excitation of quasibound resonances in the molecular nucleus-nucleus potential. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 13C(13C,13C) molecular wave functions, dynamical two-center shell model, quasimolecular resonances, radial and Coriolis coupling, coupled channel calculations for σ(θ).

- Erratum : problem of antisymmetrization in heavy-ion scattering (1973)
- In Eq. (68a) the factor (-1)N/2 should be deleted. Therefore, the sum L +J has to be an even number for the scattering of identical nuclei.