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- 2000 (25) (remove)

#### Keywords

- Quark Materie (3)
- quark gluon plasma (3)
- quark matter (3)
- Quark Gluon Plasma (2)
- heavy ion collision (2)
- quark (2)
- Cluster integrals (1)
- Hadron (1)
- Hadron Gas Modell (1)
- Kollision (1)

- Van der Waals excluded volume model for Lorentz contracted rigid spheres (2000)
- Conventional cluster and virial expansions are generalized to momentum dependent interparticle potentials. The model with Lorentz contracted hard core potentials is considered, e.g. as hadron gas model. A Van der Waals-type model with a temperature dependent excluded volume is derived. Lorentz contraction effects at given temperature are stronger for light particles and make their effective excluded volume smaller than that of heavy ones.

- Unusual bound states of quark matter within the NJL model (2000)
- Properties of dense quark matter in and out of chemical equilibrium are studied within the SU(3) Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. In addition to the 4 fermion scalar and vector terms the model includes also the 6 fermion flavour mixing interaction. First we study a novel form of deconfined matter, meso-matter, which is composed of equal number of quarks and antiquarks. It can be thought of as a strongly compressed meson gas where mesons are melted into their elementary constituents, quarks and antiquarks. Strongly bound states in this quark antiquark matter are predicted for all flavour combinations of qq pairs. The maximum binding energy reaches up to 180 MeV per qq pair for mixtures with about 70% of strange (s¯s) pairs. Equilibrated baryon rich quark matter with various flavour compositions is also studied. In this case only shallow bound states appear in systems with a significant admixture(about 40%) of strange quarks (strangelets). Their binding energies are quite sensitive to the relative strengths of scalar and vector interactions. The common property of all these bound states is that they appear at high particle densities when the chiral symmetry is nearly restored. Thermal properties of meso-matter as well as chemically equilibrated strange quark matter are also investigated. Possible decay modes of these bound states are discussed.

- Transition to resonance-rich matter in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies (2000)
- The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced in the central region in central Au+Au collisions at square root s = 200A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport model UrQMD. The pressure here becomes isotropic at t approx 5 fm/c. Within the next 15 fm/c the expansion of the matter proceeds almost isentropically with the entropy per baryon ratio S/A approx 150. During this period the equation of state in the (P, epsilon)-plane has a very simple form, P = 0.15 epsilon. Comparison with the statistical model (SM) of an ideal hadron gas reveals that the time of approx 20 fm/c may be too short to attain the fully equilibrated state. Particularly, the fractions of resonances are overpopulated in contrast to the SM values. The creation of such a long-lived resonance-rich state slows down the relaxation to chemical equilibrium and can be detected experimentally.

- Three-cluster nuclear molecules (2000)
- A three-center phenomenological model able to explain, at least from a qualitative point of view, the difference in the observed yield of a particle-accompanied fission and that of binary fission was developed. It is derived from the liquid drop model under the assumption that the aligned configuration, with the emitted particle between the light and heavy fragment is obtained by increasing continuously the separation distance, while the radii of the light fragment and of the light particle are kept constant. During the first stage of the deformation one has a two-center evolution until the neck radius becomes equal to the radius of the emitted particle. Then the three center starts developing by decreasing with the same amount the two tip distances. In such a way a second minimum, typical for a cluster molecule, appears in the deformation energy. Examples are presented for $^{240}$Pu parent nucleus emitting $\alpha$-particles and $^{14}$C in a ternary process.

- The quasi-molecular stage of ternary fission (2000)
- We developed a three-center phenomenological model,able to explain qualitatively the recently obtained experimental results concerning the quasimolecular stage of a light-particle accompanied fission process. It was derived from the liquid drop model under the assumption that the aligned configuration, with the emitted particle between the light and heavy fragment, is reached by increasing continuously the separation distance, while the radii of the heavy fragment and of the light particle are kept constant. In such a way,a new minimum of a short-lived molecular state appears in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. This minimum allows the existence of a short-lived quasi-molecular state, decaying into the three final fragments.The influence of the shell effects is discussed. The half-lives of some quasimolecular states which could be formed in the $^{10}$Be and $^{12}$C accompanied fission of $^{252}$Cf are roughly estimated to be the order of 1 ns, and 1 ms, respectively.

- The directed flow maximum near c(s) = 0 (2000)
- We investigate the excitation function of quark-gluon plasma formation and of directed in-plane flow of nucleons in the energy range of the BNLAGS and for the Ekin Lab = 40A GeV Pb+Pb collisions performed recently at the CERN-SPS. We employ the three-fluid model with dynamical unification of kinetically equilibrated fluid elements. Within our model with first-order phase transition at high density, droplets of QGP coexisting with hadronic matter are produced already at BNL-AGS energies, Ekin Lab C 10A GeV. A substantial decrease of the isentropic velocity of sound, however, requires higher energies, Ekin Lab C 40A GeV. We show the e ect on the flow of nucleons in the reaction plane. According to our model calculations, kinematic requirements and EoS effects work hand-in-hand at Ekin Lab = 40A GeV to allow the observation of the dropping velocity of sound via an increase of the directed flow around midrapidity as compared to top BNL-AGS energy.

- Suppression of quarkonium production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC (2000)
- A model for the production of quarkonium states in the midrapidity region at RHIC and LHC energy range is presented which explores well understood properties of QCD only. An increase of the quarkonium hadronisation time with the initial energy leads to a gradual change of the most important phenomena from fixed target- to collider-energies. We evaluate nuclear e ects in the quarkonium production due to medium modification of the momentum distribution of the heavy quarks produced in the hard interactions, i.e. due to the broadening of the transverse momentum distribution. Other nuclear effects, i.e. nuclear shadowing and parton energy loss, are also evaluated.

- Superheavy nuclei in a chiral hadronic model (2000)
- Superheavy nuclei are investigated in a nonlinear chiral SU(3)-model. The proton number Z=120 and neutron numbers of N=172, 184 and 198 are predicted to be magic. The charge distributions and alpha-decay chains hint towards a hollow stucture.

- Strangeness enhancement from strong color fields at RHIC (2000)
- In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, early stage multiple scatterings may lead to an increase of the color electric field strength. Consequently, particle production - especially heavy quark (and di-quark) production - is greatly enhanced according to the Schwinger mechanism. We test this idea via the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD) for Au+Au collisions at the full RHIC energy (ps = 200 AGeV). Relative to p+p collisions, a factor of 60, 20 and 7 enhancement respectively, for (sss), (ss), and , (s) is predicted for a model with increased color electric field strength.

- Strange quark matter within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (2000)
- Equation of state of baryon rich quark matter is studied within the SU(3) Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with flavour mixing interaction. Possible bound states (strangelets) and chiral phase transitions in this matter are investigated at various values of strangeness fraction rs. The model predictions are very sensitive to the ratio of vector and scalar coupling constants, ¾ = GV /GS. At ¾ = 0.5 and zero temperature the maximum binding energy (about 15 MeV per baryon) takes place at rs C 0.4. Such strangelets are negatively charged and have typical life times < 10 7 s. The calculations are carried out also at finite temperatures. They show that bound states exist up to temperatures of about 15 MeV. The model predicts a first order chiral phase transition at finite baryon densities. The parameters of this phase transition are calculated as a function of rs.