- New molecular mediators in tumor angiogenesis (2000)
- Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and progression. It has been demonstrated that tumor growth beyond a size 1 to 2 mm3 requires the induction of new vessels. Angiogenesis is regulated by several endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube formation. Under physiological conditions these mediators of endothelial cell growth are in balance and vessel growth is limited. In fact, within the angiogenic balance endothelial cell turnover is sufficient to maintain a functional vascular wall but does not allow vessel growth. Tumor growth an progression has successfully been correlated to the serum concentration of angiogenic mediators. Furthermore, the vascular density of tumor tissues could be correlated to the clinical course of the disease in several tumor entities. Within the last years several new mediators of endothelial cell growth have been isolated e.g. angiopoietin 1, angiopoietin 2, midkine, pleiotropin, leptin and maspin. In this review we discuss the mechanisms leading to tumor angiogenesis and describe some of the newer mediators of endothelial cell stimulation and inhibition.
- Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta I integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy (2005)
- Background: Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Methods: Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a), alpha2beta1 (CD49b), alpha3beta1 (CD49c), alpha4beta1 (CD49d), alpha5beta1 (CD49e), and alpha6beta1 (CD49f) receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results: Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. Conclusion: We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype.