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- Anisotropic flow at RHIC : how unique is the number-of-constituent-quark scaling? (2006)
- The transverse momentum dependence of the anisotropic flow v_2 for pi, K, nucleon, Lambda, Xi and Omega is studied for Au+Au collisions at sqrt s_NN = 200 GeV within two independent string-hadron transport approaches (RQMD and UrQMD). Although both models reach only 60% of the absolute magnitude of the measured v_2, they both predict the particle type dependence of v_2, as observed by the RHIC experiments: v_2 exhibits a hadron-mass hierarchy (HMH) in the low p_T region and a number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) dependence in the intermediate p_T region. The failure of the hadronic models to reproduce the absolute magnitude of the observed v_2 indicates that transport calculations of heavy ion collisions at RHIC must incorporate interactions among quarks and gluons in the early, hot and dense phase. The presence of an NCQ scaling in the string-hadron model results suggests that the particle-type dependencies observed in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate p_T are related to the hadronic cross sections in vacuum rather than to the hadronization process itself, as suggested by quark recombination models.